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3  1761  01089512  6 




Railways  «^U- 

Reference    to   Pari 

1  rtrkconneL. 

2  Sanauhar. 

3  Pennant. 

Ib  Joluistone . 



21  Dntesdnle 

22  I^rhmabetv. 

23  TortharwaU, 
i  24  Mouswald,. 

J26  ftahn-ell. 

27  tit/nine  rt  rent 

31    Middlebie. 


34  Xxkdalenutii: 

35  W-sterHrk. 



39    Jffalfmorton. 

«    Ku^pairukflendm, 

7     Gleticaim. 


H    Dun 
12    folywood. 

14     Tu 

yke  Cajnln-idge.  Onivei-sity  Jfr&s. 


General  Editor :    W.  MURISON,  M.A. 



C.    F.   CLAY,   MANAGER 


Berlin:    A.  ASHER  AND   CO. 

ILdpjtg:    F.   A.    BROCKHAUS 

#efo  lorfe:    G.  P.  PUTNAM'S  SONS 

Bombay  atito  Calcutta:  MACMILLAN  AND  CO.,  LT» 

All  rights  reserved 


Cambridge   County   Geographies 



Fellow  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Scotland 

With  Maps,  Diagrams  and  Illustrations 

Cambridge:  A 

at  the  University  Press 

Cambridge : 




1.  County  and  Shire.     The  Origin  of  Dumfries   .         .          i 

2.  General  Characteristics 4 

3.  Size.     Shape.     Boundaries 7 

4.  Surface  and  General  Features 1 1 

5.  Watershed.     Rivers  and  Lakes         .          .          .          .14 

6.  Geology  and  Soil .24 

7.  Natural  History        ....  -36 

8.  Round  the  Coast 47 

9.  Coastal  Gains  and  Losses  54 

10.  Climate  and  Rainfall        .         .         .         .          •          -57 

11.  People — Race,  Type,  Language,  Population       .         .        62 

12.  Agriculture       .....•••        7° 

13.  Industries  and  Manufactures 75 

14.  Mines  and  Minerals         .         .         .         •         •  7  8 

15.  Fisheries  .         .         .         .         •         •         •         •         .81 

1 6.  Shipping  and  Trade          .  ....        85 

17.  History  of  the  County 86 



1 8.  Antiquities — Prehistoric,  Roman,  Celtic,  Anglo-Saxon       95 

19.  Architecture — (a)  Ecclesiastical          .         .         .         .106 

20.  Architecture — (b)  Castellated no 

21.  Architecture — (c]    Municipal  and  Domestic       .          .119 

22.  Communications — Past     and    Present.       Roads     and 

Railways 123 

23.  Administration  and  Divisions — Ancient  and  Modern     129 

24.  The  Roll  of  Honour 135 

25.  The  Chief  Towns  and  Villages  of  Dumfriesshire     .     153 



The  Castle  Loch,  Lochmaben  ......          5 

The  Devil's  Beef  Tub 9 

Dalveen  Pass 13 

Mennock  Pass  .          .          .          .          .          .          .          .17 

Moffat:    the  Well  Burn 19 

Meeting  of  the  Ewes  and  Esk,   Langholm        .          .          .22 
Loch  Skene      .          .          .          .          .          .         .          .          .23 

Grey  Mare's  Tail,  Moffat 25 

Sanquhar  Coalfield   .          .          .          .          .         .         .          .31 

Crichope  Linn  ........        34 

Drumlanrig  Castle 37 

Hoddom :    "  The  kind  beech-rows "  ....       40 

Loch  wood  Oaks         .          .          .          .          .          .          .          .41 

The  Whiskered  Tern       .......       45 

Solway  Viaduct          .          .          .          .          .          .          .          .51 

Clochmabenstane       .          .          .          .         .          .          .          .52 

Craigenputtock :    Carlyle's  House      .....        64 

Lockerbie  from  Mains  Hill      .          .          .  .         .68 

Cattle  Fair,  Dumfries 74 

Statuette  of  Brigantia,  found  at  Birrens  .         .         .          .87 

Caerlaverock  Castle .         .         .         .          .          .         .         .94 

Altar  of  Minerva,  found  at  Birrens          .          .         .          .98 



Torque  and  Bowl  found  at  Lochar  Moss         .          .         .     101 

Ruthwell  Cross 102 

Boatford  Cross  and  Nith  Bridge       .         .         .         .         .104 

Thornhill  Cross        .         .         .          .         .         .         .         .105 

Queensberry  Monument,  Durisdeer  Church      .         .         .108 
Crichton  Memorial  Church,  Dumfries      .         .         .  110 

Morton  Castle 113 

Bonshaw  Tower 116 

Johnie  Armstrong's  House — Hollows  Tower     .         .         .116 
Hoddom  Castle         .         .         .         .          .         .         .         .117 

Stapleton  Towers .118 

The  Mid  Steeple  and  High  Street,  Dumfries  .          .         .120 
Annan  Town  Hall  .          .          .          .          .          .          .          .121 

Castle  Milk 122 

Friars  Carse,  Dunscore     .          .          .         .          .         .         .123 

Old  and  New  Bridges,  Dumfries 127 

Old  Grammar  School,  Annan  .          .         .          .         .         .132 

Town  Hall,  Lockerbie 134 

Sir  John  Malcolm,  G.C.B.        .          .          .          .         .         .      137 

Robert  Flint 139 

Edward  Irving  .          .          .          .          .          .          .          .142 

Patrick  Miller's  Steamboat       .          .         .         .         .         .144 

Joseph  Thomson 146 

Thomas  Carlyle 148 

Burns's  Monument,  Dumfries.         .          .          .         .         .151 

Jardine  Hall 154 

Dunscore  Church     .          .          .         .          .          .         .         .156 

Carlyle's  Birthplace,  Ecclefechan       .         .         .         .         .158 

Gretna  Green  .         .         .         .         .         .         .  159 

Hoddom  Church 160 

Langholm  Parish  Church          .         .          .         .         .         .162 

Moffat 165 

Ren  wick's  Monument  and  Maxwelton  Braes    .  .166 



Town  Hall,  Sanquhar       .         .         ...         .         .         .168 

Morton  School  and  Schoolhouse,  Thornhill       .          .         .170 
Wanlockhead i?1 

Diagrams          .          .      -v,..v        .         .          .         .         .          .173 


Orographical  Map  of  Dumfriesshire          .         .          .  Front  Cower 
Geological  Map  of  Dumfriesshire     ....  Back  Co<ver 

Map  of  the  Solway 48 

Rainfall  map  of  Scotland          .          .          .         .         .         -59 

The  illustrations  on  pp.  5,  9,  13,  17,  22,  25,  51,  52,  64,  68, 
74,  108,  117,  118,  122,  123,  127,  132,  134,  151,  154,  162,  165, 
1 68,  170,  and  171  are  from  photographs  by  Messrs  J.  Valentine 
&  Sons;  those  on  pp.  19,  35,  37,  40,  41,  94,  102,  104,  105, 
no,  113,  116,  120,  121,  156,  158,  160,  and  166  are  from 
photographs  by  the  author;  the  portraits  on  pp.  137,  142,  and 
148  are  from  photographs  by  Messrs  T.  &  R.  Annan;  the  portrait 
on  p.  139  is  from  an  etching  by  kind  permission  of  Sir  George 
Reid;  that  on  p.  146  is  from  a  photograph  by  Mr  John  Fergus;  the 
illustration  on  p.  159  is  from  a  photograph  by  Miss  Montgomerie, 
Dalmore ;  the  illustrations  on  pp.  87  and  98  are  reproduced  by 
courtesy  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Scotland;  that  on  p.  144 
is  from  a  block  kindly  lent  by  Messrs  J.  Maxwell  &  Son, 
Dumfries;  those  on  pp.  23  and  45  are  reproduced  from  Mr  Hugh 
S.  Gladstone's  Birds  of  Dumfriesshire  by  kind  permission  of  the 
author,  the  former  being  from  a  photograph  by  Mr  Legard ; 
that  on  p.  31  is  reproduced  from  Geikie's  Scenery  of  Scotland  by 
permission  of  Messrs  Macmillan  &  Co.  The  Map  of  the  Solway 
on  p.  48  is  reproduced  by  courtesy  of  Dr  George  Neilson. 

i.     County  and   Shire.     The   Origin   of 

The  creation  of  a  county  and  the  establishment  of  a 
sheriffdom  in  Dumfriesshire  were  fraught  with  difficulties. 
The  ancient  county  of  Dumfries  included  part  of  Gal- 
loway as  far  west  as  the  river  Cree,  in  addition  to  the 
present  area  which  was  constituted  a  sheriffdom  in  1 748. 
When  in  1107  King  Edgar  bequeathed  to  his  youngest 
brother,  Prince  David,  Scottish  Cumbria,  of  which  the 
present  shire  of  Dumfries  was  then  a  part,  he  granted 
a  very  disputable  possession.  It  was  a  little  buffer-state 
between  two  warring  kingdoms.  David,  being  both  a 
petty  king  and  earl  (comes),  had  the  opportunity  for  imposing 
upon  his  territory  the  feudal  system,  of  the  Anglo-Norman 
type,  to  which  he  had  been  accustomed  in  England.  To 
his  court  he  attracted  Anglo-Norman  and  southern 
chivalry  to  support  him  in  his  rule.  His  regal  adminis- 
tration was  probably  conducted  by  feudal  dignitaries — 
chancellor,  constable,  justiciar,  chamberlain,  steward,  and 
marshal.  On  David's  accession  to  the  throne  of  Scotland 
in  1124,  according  to  Gaelic  custom  and  feudal  law,  his 
personal  property  became  an  appanage  of  the  crown. 

H.  D.  I 


But  at  least  one  of  the  three  great  divisions  of  the  border- 
land, namely  Strathnith,  was  still  ruled  by  a  Celtic 
over-lord  Dunegal;  and,  in  like  manner,  probably  Annan- 
dale  and  Eskdale  were  governed  by  hereditary  chiefs. 
David  found  it  impolitic  at  once  to  discard  the  old  code 
of  law  and  customs,  which,  as  in  the  case  of  Galloway, 
prevailed  in  some  measure  for  centuries.  The  eastern 
boundary  of  Gaway  or  Galloway  is  not  easily  determined 
now.  Consequently  the  Celtic  over-lord  of  Strathnith 
(Nithsdale,  and  probably  part  of  Galloway)  was  left 
undisturbed.  Annandale,  however — a  tract  stretching  to 
the  Forest  of  Selkirk — was  granted  to  Robert  de  Brus, 
while  the  constable,  Morville,  got  Cunningham,  and  the 
steward,  FitzAlan,  got  Renfrew  and  part  of  Kyle.  To 
prevent  jealousies  among  the  local  chiefs  the  Brus  was 
not  created  an  earl.  If  Dunegal  held  the  office  of  a 
Maor  (who  corresponded  to  the  Gerefa  or  sheriff  of  the 
Saxons)  on  his  own  land,  he  might  act  as  a  vice-comes. 
The  early  kings  themselves,  in  their  progresses  with  their 
justiciars,  presided  over  the  courts  of  law.  It  is  natural 
to  expect,  therefore,  that  the  castle-guard  of  the  county 
was  connected  with  the  territory  governed  by  Dunegal. 
The  county  (comitatus)  for  seven  centuries  has  been 
associated  with  the  town  of  Dumfries — a  place  where 
Dunegal  and  Radnulf  his  son  held  and  disponed  heritage 
about  the  middle  of  the  twelfth  century.  Radnulf 's 
charter  was  given  at  "Dronfres,"  which  in  the  Gaelic 
tongue  signifies  "the  ridge  of  the  bushes"  (phreas). 
This  corresponds  with  the  persistent  local  pronunciation 
"Drumfreesh."  The  next  form  of  the  word  is  Dunfres 


and  Dunfrez  (1183-8),  a  significant  change  after  the 
or  fort  of  Dunegal,  on  the  bushy  ridge,  became  of  para- 
mount importance.  This  form  of  the  word,  "Dunfrys," 
appears  in  1296,  and  "Drumfres"  holds  on  in  charters 
after  1329.  What  in  the  way  of  establishing  feudalism 
David  and  Malcolm  left  undone  William  the  Lyon  com- 
pleted. About  the  year  1186  he  erected  a  strong  castle 
(castrum)  at  Dunfres  to  overawe  the  rebellious  Galwegians. 
In  that  military  centre  the  officers  of  the  king  held  their 
courts,  and  received  the  service  and  fees  of  the  knights 
and  barons  of  the  district  as  well  as  customs  due  to  the 
Crown.  Annandale  was  exempted  from  castle- ward. 
Guarded  by  the  castle,  the  new  royal  burgh  of  Dumfries 
thus  early  rose,  and  from  it  the  sheriff  made  the  lieges 
keep  the  king's  peace.  The  boundaries  of  this  sheriffdom 
(vtce-comitatus)  in  course  of  time  were  curtailed.  The 
sheriff's  jurisdiction,  however,  was  not,  in  all  matters, 
commensurate  with  the  boundaries  of  the  county.  Annan- 
dale  had  the  separate  jurisdiction  of  a  stewartry,  Eskdale 
that  of  a  regality.  Till  the  middle  of  the  eighteenth 
century,  sheriffdom,  stewartry,  and  regality  were  hereditary 
in  different  noble  families  in  succession.  When  the 
Scotts  of  Buccleuch  held  the  regality,  they  got  their 
Eskdale  lands  transferred  to  the  sheriffdom  of  Roxburgh, 
from  which  they  were  separated  in  1748  and  joined  again 
to  Dumfries.  The  burgh  of  Dumfries  was  in  the 
fifteenth  century  excluded  from  the  sheriff's  jurisdiction 
in  respect  of  "actions  of  blood" — a  privilege  confirmed 
to  the  town  by  James  IV  in  1509. 

The  county  became  adjusted  to  its  modern  conditions 



when  parliament,  by  the  "  Heretable  Jurisdictions  "  Act, 
1747,  abolished  heritable  jurisdictions.  The  Duke  of 
Queensberry,  hereditary  sheriff  of  Dumfries  and  coroner 
of  Nithsdale,  received  £6621.  Ss.  $d.  in  compensation  for 
his  loss  of  offices;  the  Marquis  of  Annandale,  £3000  for 
the  loss  of  the  stewardship  of  Annandale,  and  the  regality 
of  Moffat;  and  the  Duke  of  Buccleuch  ^1400  for  the 
regality  of  Eskdale. 

2.     General  Characteristics. 

In  the  southern  uplands  of  Scotland,  stretching  between 
sea  and  sea,  where  the  two  kingdoms  meet  in  the  Solway 
Strath,  and  almost  encompassed  with  an  oval  girdle  of 
green  hills,  lies  the  pastoral  territory  of  Dumfries.  The 
picturesque  aspect  of  the  country  made  Fergusson,  the 
poet,  declare  that  the  gods  "there  ha'e  shown  their  power 
in  fairy  dream."  Its  characteristics  are  varied,  no  one 
having  a  striking  predominance,  since  the  verdant  land- 
scape, from  its  maritime  margin  on  the  Solway  Firth, 
stretches  evenly  over  holm  and  undulating  ground,  ridges 
and  little  hills,  up  to  a  high  transverse  watershed,  ranging  in 
height  from  Corsincone  Hill  (1547  feet)  to  White  Coomb 
(2695  feet)  above  sea-level.  Nothing  appears  exaggerated, 
and  a  fascinating  harmony  everywhere  prevails,  partly 
created  by  landscape  artists  who  have  blended  woodland 
and  tilled  field  to  add  beauty  to  hill,  dale,  and  river. 

Three  great  vales,  parallel  to  each  other,  and  having  a 
southerly  trend — Nithsdale,  Annandale  and  Eskdale — each 


drained  by  a  river  from  which  it  is  named,  give  the  shire 
its  chief  natural  distinction.  In  combination  with  these 
are  lesser  dales — the  greatest  being  the  Vale  of  Cairn. 
These  again  slope  down  on  either  side  of  the  three  great 
water  arteries,  in  two  directions,  south-west  and  south-east 
respectively;  and  thus  nature  provides  for  moderating  the 
wind,  rain,  and  fog,  and  for  obtaining  an  even  distribution 

The  Castle  Loch,  Lochmaben 

of  sunshine,  heat,  and  moisture.  The  valleys,  watered  by 
a  hundred  trouting-streams,  which  drain  much  arable  and 
pastoral  land,  form  suitable  tracts  for  the  agriculturist 
and  sheep-farmer.  In  early  autumn,  when  the  harvest 
crowns  the  year,  the  prospect  from  one  of  the  great  hills 
is  a  vast  panorama  of  green  and  gold  cut  with  a  streak  of 
silver  river  in  each  of  the  valleys  below. 


On  the  uplands  there  are  wide  tracts  of  moorland  and 
hill  pasture,  lone,  yet  vocal  with  the  bleat  of  sheep  and 
cry  of  wild  birds.  Lakes  are  little  in  evidence  except 
around  Lochmaben — "Marjory  o'  the  mony  lochs,  A 
carlin  auld  and  teuch,"  where  formerly  seven  sheets  of 
water  were  clustered  together.  Worthy  of  note  is  an 
extensive  tract  of  peat  moss  and  moor  lying  east  of  and 
parallel  to  the  river  Nith,  below  the  town  of  Dumfries. 
Along  its  eastern  margin  the  G.  &  S.  W.  Railway  is  built. 
Known  as  Lochar  Moss,  it  has  the  divisional  names  of 
Craig's  Moss,  Racks  Moss,  Lochar  Moss,  Ironhirst  Moss, 
Holmhead  Moss,  and  Longbridge  Moor.  In  extent  it  is 
six  miles  long  and  above  two  miles  broad  at  the  Wath 
Burn.  Recently  extensive  plant  has  been  built  on  the 
moss  for  the  utilisation  of  the  peat. 

The  maritime  position  of  the  shire  is  also  of  con- 
siderable importance  still,  notwithstanding  the  greater 
convenience  of  the  railways  for  the  carriage  of  imports 
and  exports.  Nith  and  Annan  are  deep  tidal  rivers  with 
water  to  bring  vessels  of  considerable  tonnage  to  near 
Dumfries  and  to  Annan.  Nature  has  provided  an  easy 
outlet,  by  the  rivers  Nith  and  Annan  and  by  the  Solway 
Firth,  for  the  exportation  of  the  local  minerals,  products, 
manufactures,  and  netted  fish.  Unfortunately  it  is  still 
the  upper  surface  of  the  land  which  is  the  source  of 
wealth  and  power.  The  soil  being  utilised  to  the  fullest 
extent  affords  work  and  homes  for  a  busy  population  which 
now  has  little  chance  to  increase  much  in  country  areas. 

One  noticeable  feature  of  the  landscape  for  which 
man  is  wholly  responsible  is  the  regular  division  of  arable 


and  grass  lands  into  fields,  well  fenced  with  stone  dykes, 
with  hedges  of  intermingled  thorn  and  beech,  and  with 
iron  fences.  Shapely  and  well-assorted  plantations  of  soft 
and  hard  wood  indicate  a  careful  land  culture.  Great 
herds  and  flocks  move  on  numerous  pastures.  Every- 
where comfortable  farmsteads  appear.  On  prominent 
spots  many  hoary  ruined  fortalices  stand,  and  towers, 
repaired  and  enlarged  into  modern  mansions,  are  visible 
in  wooded  demesnes  in  greater  numbers  than  in  other 
shires.  These  residences  indicate  the  presence  of  a  class 
personally  interested  in  the  land,  being  heirs  or  successors 
of  the  many  barons  and  proprietary  who  once  were 
powerful  factors  in  the  affairs  of  The  Borders. 

3.     Size.     Shape.     Boundaries. 

In  size  Dumfriesshire  ranks  eighth  among  Scottish 
counties,  and  in  population  fourteenth.  Its  greatest 
length  from  north-west  to  south-east,  that  is,  from  Eller- 
goffe  Knowe  (1264)  to  Liddel,  is  53^  miles,  and  from 
north  to  south-south-west,  that  is,  from  Loch  Craig  Head 
(2625)  to  a  point  south-south-west  of  Caerlaverock  Castle, 
32|  miles.  The  shore  line  extends  32  miles.  Its  area 
contains  708,071  acres,  inclusive  of  foreshore  and  tidal 
water,  or  1106  square  miles;  or  690,294  acres  exclusive 
of  these,  or  1078  miles.  There  are  4000  acres,  or  six 
square  miles,  of  inland  water. 

This  area  would  appear  on  the  map  as  an  oval  with 
a  serrated  boundary,  were  the  northern  indentation  by 


Lanarkshire  removed.  Six  lowland  Scottish  shires — 
Kirkcudbright,  Ayr,  Lanark,  Peebles,  Selkirk  and  Rox- 
burgh, and  one  English  county — Cumberland — gird  the 

Queensberry  Hill  (2285)  stands  near  the  centre  of  the 
northern  boundary.  From  it  to  either  side  springs  a  great 
arc  of  high  hills,  thereby  forming  two  almost  semicircular 
boundaries  along  the  northern  frontier.  Beginning  the 
circuit  on  the  extreme  west  side,  where  Dumfries  touches 
Kirkcudbright  and  Ayr,  one  finds  the  Lorg  range,  with 
three  summits,  rising  in  Blacklorg  to  2231  feet,  and  form- 
ing a  watershed  for  Afton  on  the  north  and  the  many 
feeders  of  the  Nith  in  the  west.  A  lofty  ridge  curves 
around  Kirkconnel  by  McCririck's  Cairn  (1824)  beneath 
Corsincone  (1547),  on  to  the  limits  of  Ayr  and  Lanark 
at  Threeshire  Stone  (1500),  near  Mount  Stuart  Hill 
(1567),  then  eastward  by  Spango  (1391)  to  Wanlock  Dod 
(1808),  between  Wanlockhead  and  Leadhills.  Thence 
the  watershed  sweeps  south  to  Lowther  Hill  (2377) — tne 
highest  altitude  there.  The  range  still  keeps  high  while 
bounding  Durisdeer,  in  the  Waal  Hill  reaching  1987  feet, 
and  in  Wedderlaw  2185  feet. 

Beginning  again  slightly  north  of  Queensberry,  the 
course  of  the  second  arc  tends  northward  with  a  declivity 
of  a  few  hundred  feet  till  it  touches  Peeblesshire  and 
Lanarkshire,  beneath  Flecket  Hill  (1522),  in  the  vicinity 
of  Annanhead  Hill  (1566),  and  the  Devil's  Beef  Tub. 
Again  ascending  to  the  north-west  with  increasing  altitude 
— at  Hartfell  (2651) — it  comes  to  the  boundary  of  Selkirk- 
shire at  Loch  Craig  Head  (2625),  70  feet  lower  than 


White  Coomb  (2695).  The  boundary  curves  round  Loch 
Skene;  and  taking  a  southerly  course  at  a  height  of  over 
2000  feet,  it  reaches  Capel  Fell  (2223),  east  of  Moffat 
Water.  A  northern  sweep  by  Ettrick  Pen  (2270) — the 
highest  hill  in  that  quarter — brings  it  with  varying  declivity 
round  Eskdalemuir,  south  of  Ettrick,  past  the  boundary 
of  Roxburghshire,  fixed  above  Moodlaw  Loch,  to  Cause- 
way Grain  Head  (1607).  It  then  descends  southward  by 
Hartgarth  Fell  (1806),  east  of  Ewes,  till  it  meets  Liddel 
Water,  the  boundary  with  England. 

Liddel  Water,  till  it  joins  the  Esk  near  The  Scots 
Dyke,  for  five  miles  in  straight  line  from  point  to  point, 
forms  the  boundary  between  Canonbie  and  Cumberland. 
The  Scots  Dyke  runs  till  it  almost  touches  the  river  Sark, 
which  now  becomes  the  boundary  between  the  countries 
as  it  flows  south  to  join  the  Esk.  In  the  channel  of  the 
Esk,  as  it  flows  west,  the  boundary  is  fixed  for  a  few  miles, 
till  Esk  reaches  the  Eden  opposite  TordufF  Point.  Eden 
falls  into  Solway;  and  Solway  Firth,  below  Newbie, 
becomes  the  extreme  boundary  on  the  south. 

To  complete  the  environment — going  north  from  this 
point  the  boundary  lies  between  Dumfries  and  Kirkcud- 
bright till  Ayrshire  is  reached  at  Meikledodd  Hill  (2100). 
At  first  it  divides  Blackshaw  Bank  and  does  not  touch  the 
Nith  till  well  up  its  channel,  which  it  crosses  and  rejoins 
beneath  Kelton  Bank.  In  the  Nith,  flowing  between 
Dumfries  and  Maxwelltown,  the  boundary  is  fixed  till  it 
reaches  the  Water  of  Cluden  at  Lincluden,  whence  it  goes 
in  a  north-westerly  direction  till  Lower  Stepford  is  reached. 
Here  the  Barbuie  Burn  separates  the  shires,  and  the 


boundary  runs  south  of  Dunscore  parish  between  hills 
rising  over  1000  feet,  on  past  Craigenputtock  (700)  and 
Loch  Urr,  round  Glencairn,  across  Benbrack  (1900)  and 
Black  Hill  (1808) — the  western  limit  of  Tynron  parish. 
Touching  Penpont,  the  boundary  next  reaches  to  Sanquhar 
at  Blacklorg  (2231) — the  western  limit  as  stated  at  the 

In  the  thirteenth  century  and  onwards  the  boundary 
between  England  and  Scotland  was  the  river  Esk.  In 
1552  the  frontier  was  shifted  to  the  Sark.  The  district 
between  the  old  and  new  limits  was  debateable.  This 
Debateable  Land,  known  as  "the  lands  Batable  or  Threpe 
Lands,"  lay  partly  in  England  and  partly  in  Scotland.  Its 
south  boundary  was  the  Esk  from  its  junction  with  the 
Liddel  to  the  spot  where  the  Esk  and  the  Sark  met.  It 
comprehended  the  baronies  of  Kirkandrews  and  Morton 
in  Cumberland,  and  Brettalach  or  Bryntalone,  now 
Canonbie,  in  Dumfriesshire. 

4.     Surface  and  General  Features. 

The  surface  of  the  county,  rising  from  sea-level  to  an 
altitude  of  nearly  2700  feet,  is  varied  with  holm  and  ridge, 
dell  and  hill,  with  here  and  there  a  sheet  of  water  breaking 
the  monotony  of  a  green  landscape.  Its  pastoral  aspect  is 
noteworthy.  One-half  of  the  whole  area  is  covered  with 
hill-grass  and  heath,  more  than  one-fifth  with  permanent 
pasture,  and  more  than  one-fifth  is  arable  land.  Thus 
there  is  little  left  for  woodland,  water,  and  waste  in  a 


territory  agreeably  parcelled  out  into  2700  agricultural 

The  surface,  generally  speaking,  presents  no  abrupt 
features,  but  meadow  land  slopes  up  to  ridge,  ridges  reach 
to  uplands,  and  these  rise  to  the  high  spurs  which  emerge 
from  the  barriers  on  the  northern  limits.  The  systematic 
disposition  of  the  great  valleys  and  minor  dales,  already 
referred  to,  with  their  relative  streams,  forms  a  certain 
regularity  of  surface  in  every  district.  This  lie  of  the 
land  permits  nature  to  display  every  charm  from  the 
beauty  and  riches  of  long  and  well-tilled  alluvial  fields  of 
a  red  hue,  the  picturesque  aspect  of  copse  and  wood,  self- 
sown  or  planted  by  river  and  bank  up  to  the  hills  clad 
with  heath  or  mountain  grass.  The  upper  valley  of  Nith, 
the  middle  basin  round  Thornhill,  and  the  ever  widening 
Strath  extending  from  Dumfries  to  Sol  way  Firth  are  in 
turn  scenes  of  pastoral  and  sylvan  beauty.  Similarly  the 
triple  vales  of  Annan,  narrow  at  MofFat,  widening  into 
"The  Howe  of  Annandale,"  and  debouching  into  the 
Solway  Strath,  have  characteristics  almost  identical  with 
those  of  Nithsdale.  Eskdale,  with  its  three  vales  of  Ewes, 
Esk,  and  Wauchope,  united  at  the  town  of  Langholm, 
less  extensive  and  more  rural,  still  beautiful,  sooner 
descends  into  the  Lowlands. 

Of  the  lofty  hills  piled  in  concentric  circles  along  the 
northern  frontiers  enough  has  been  written  to  suggest  the 
grandeur  of  many  serene  vales  at  their  base,  and  many 
noisy  torrents  in  rocky  beds,  such  as  Crichope  Linn,  and 
the  Cauldron  at  Wamphray  in  the  hills.  Travellers  have 
felt  the  charm  of  the  pensive  Passes  of  Mennock,  Dalveen, 


and  Waalpath,  and  the  glamour  of  Scaur  Water  and 
Shinnel  in  Nithsdale :  have  realised  the  grandeur  invest- 
ing The  Devil's  Beef  Tub  in  Annandale,  and  lonely  Loch 
Skene  in  the  wilds  of  Moffatdale:  and  have  lingered  on 
Langholm  Bridge,  Whita  Hill,  Hollows  Tower,  and 
other  fascinating  spots  in  Eskdale. 

Of  prominent  hills  in  the  west  is  Cairnkinna  (1819) 

Dalveen  Pass 

in  Penpont  parish,  overlooking  Nithsdale,  Glencairn,  and 
the  Solway  Strath  as  far  as  Cumberland.  Queensberry 
(2285),  in  the  very  centre,  commands  Nithsdale,  Annan- 
dale,  the  seaboard  and  the  silvery  Firth  beyond.  Be- 
tween these  points,  eminent  stands  Drumlanrig  Castle 
(300)  surmounting  the  landscape  garden  of  Middle 
Nithsdale  made  by  Douglases  and  Scotts. 

From  Hartfell  (2651)  in   Moffat   parish,  nearly  366 


feet  higher  than  Queensberry,  the  Firth  and  the  German 
Ocean  can  be  seen. 

Eskdale  and  the  Border  land  for  many  miles  is  domi- 
nated by  Whita  Hill  (1162),  on  which  is  erected  an 
obelisk  in  memory  of  Sir  John  Malcolm.  The  Roman 
strategists  proved  their  knowledge  of  surveying  when  they 
established  Birrenswark  Camp  (920),  in  Hoddom  parish, 
as  a  frontier  post  from  which  beacon  signals  could  be 
communicated  far  on  every  side. 

Perhaps  the  beautiful  holm  lands  in  all  the  vales,  when 
in  pasture  or  crop,  impress  a  visitor  most ;  but  the  happy 
distribution  of  waters  running  in  romantic  courses  shaded 
with  luxuriant  trees  is  a  feature  of  the  shire  oft  recalled. 
The  rounded  bosses  of  the  hills  too  are  impressive  features. 
Extensive  mosses  also  suggest  the  age  when  the  primal 
forests  stood  in  majesty,  as  now  the  last  of  the  ancient 
oak  woods  stands  in  decadence,  great  but  dying,  round 
Lochwood  ruined  Tower,  beside  a  vast  peat  moss. 

5.     Watershed.     Rivers  and   Lakes. 

The  lakes  are  mere  fountain-heads  of  inconsiderable 
streams.  The  true  watershed  is  the  chain  of  lofty  hills 
running  from  west  to  east  on  the  northern  frontier. 
From  this  elevated  plateau  the  water  is  shed  into  three 
out  of  the  four  cardinal  directions  of  the  compass.  At 
two  points,  only  1 1  miles  apart,  rise  the  important  rivers 
Tweed  and  Clyde;  the  former  emerging  west  of  Annan- 
head  Hill  (T566)  from  Flecket  Hill  (1522),  from  which 


also,   and   not  half  a  mile  away,  springs  a  leader  which 
feeds  one  of  the  three  head-waters  of  the  Annan. 

The  Clyde,  in  its  principal  head-stream — Daer  Water 
— rises  on  the  north  side  of  Gana  Hill  (2190)  on  the 
boundary  of  Closeburn,  four  miles  and  a  half  due  east  of 
Carronbridge  railway  station.  Both  Tweed  and  Clyde  flow 
north  for  a  considerable  distance  then  descend  respectively 
east  and  west.  It  is  different  with  the  river  Nith  (55 
miles),  which  has  a  south-easterly  course  across  the  water- 
shed made  for  it  in  a  local  depression.  Three  times  in  its 
sluggish  journey  through  the  parishes  of  New  Cumnock, 
Kirkconnel,  and  Sanquhar  would  slight  barriers  force  its 
waters  back  to  join  the  Glasnock  and  to  emerge  at  Ayr. 
Nith,  starting  from  Benbrack  Hill  (1621)  in  Dalmelling- 
ton,  flows  east  into  New  Cumnock,  and  runs  first  in  a 
north-easterly  direction,  then  eastward  past  New  Cumnock 
town  to  the  boundary  of  the  shire  in  Kirkconnel.  In- 
creased by  the  Afton  and  other  tributaries  which  descend 
from  the  watershed,  Nith  without  the  Ayrshire  waters 
would  still  have  been  a  river  of  volume  like  Annan.  It 
runs  into  a  narrow  pass,  its  banks  here  and  there  fringed 
with  trees,  before  it  reaches  the  village  of  Kirkconnel, 
where  a  more  open  oval  tract  of  undulating  ground 
appears.  This  vale  of  Upper  Nithsdale,  with  its  distinct 
circuit  of  hills  over  uoo  feet  high,  is  nine  miles  long 
and  over  four  miles  broad.  In  its  descent  the  river  on  its 
right  bank  is  joined  below  Kirkconnel  by  the  Kello  (10), 
and  below  the  burgh  of  Sanquhar  by  the  Euchan  (9); 
while  on  the  left  bank  above  Sanquhar  the  romantic 
Crawick  (8)  falls  into  it.  Passing  through  the  woodlands 


of  Eliock,  on  the  left  swollen  by  the  Mennock  (6),  Nith 
finds  restraint  within  a  grey  picturesque  defile  through 
which  it  winds  past  the  hamlet  below  historic  Enterkin. 
It  next  plunges  into  the  red  ravines  above  Drumlanrig, 
through  its  woods,  passing  half  a  mile  east  of  the  Castle, 
beneath  which  it  is  joined  by  Marr  Burn.  A  little  lower, 
near  Carronbridge,  the  Carron  (9),  draining  the  dale  of 
Durisdeer,  broadens  the  river  speeding  on  in  serpentine 
track  through  a  vast  garden.  Middle  Nithsdale,  or  The 
Thornhill  Basin,  as  geologists  term  it,  is  an  emerald  oval, 
eleven  miles  long  and  seven  miles  broad,  bisected  by  the 
river  Nith. 

At  a  distance  of  one  mile  and  a  half  south-west  of 
Thornhill,  the  Cample  (10),  increased  by  streamlets  from 
the  heathery  hills  on  the  east,  falls  into  Nith.  A  mile 
farther  south,  the  brown  waters  of  the  Scaur  (20) — 
increased  near  Penpont  by  its  tributary  the  Shinnel  (12) — 
having  drained  Penpont,  Tynron,  and  part  of  Keir,  roll 
over  the  bluish-grey  gravel  at  Keir  into  Nith.  Flowing 
on  down  the  valley,  straitened  at  Blackwood,  through  the 
red  bridge  of  Auldgirth,  into  the  Dumfries  basin  circled 
by  the  hills  of  Kirkmahoe,  Dunscore,  Terregles,  Mabie 
and  Tinwald,  Nith,  deeper  and  broader,  continues  its 
oblique  course  through  this  arable  tract.  It  obtains 
additional  volume  at  Lincluden  Abbey,  where  the  waters 
of  Cluden  (23),  gathered  by  many  streamlets  in  Dunscore 
and  Glencairn  parishes — namely  Old  Cluden,  Glenesslin, 
Cairn,  Castlefern,  Craigdarroch,  and  Dalwhat,  all  from 
the  west — fall  into  Nith.  Flowing  through  Dumfries 
and  Maxwelltown  in  a  stream  94  yards  broad,  it  meets 

H.  D. 


the  tide  and  with  it  rushes  to  the  Solway  Firth,  passing 
on  the  Dumfries  side  Kingholm,  Kelton,  and  Glencaple, 
the  local  ports. 

Running  nearly  parallel  with  the  Nith  from  a  source 
in  Kirkmahoe,  east  of  High  Auldgirth,  Park  Burn  (16) — 
then  Lochar  Water — flows  south  through  the  parishes 
of  Kirkmahoe,  Tinwald,  and  Torthorwald  into  Lochar 
Moss,  touching  Dumfries  and  Mouswald,  where  it  is 
joined  by  the  Wath  Burn,  then  on  through  Caerlaverock 
into  Ruthwell,  where  its  sluggish  stream  falls  into  the 

Two  miles  below  Moffat  three  mountain  streams 
unite  in  the  holms  and  form  the  river  Annan  (40).  North 
of  that  point  at  Annanhead  Hill  (1566)  the  middle  stream, 
least  of  the  three,  the  Annan  is  supposed  to  rise ;  but  a 
longer  feeder — the  Lochan  (7) — descends  from  Barry 
Grain  Rig. 

The  second  head-stream,  Evan,  on  the  west  descends 
from  the  highlands  of  Lanarkshire  through  romantic, 
wooded  defiles  traversed  from  Beattock  by  the  highway 
to  Edinburgh  and  by  the  Caledonian  Railway.  Of  its 
many  tributaries  Garpol  Water  is  the  greatest.  The 
third  and  longest  branch,  Moffat  Water  (13),  supposed  to 
rise  at  Birkhill  (1080),  really  rises  at  the  extreme  boundary 
at  Loch  Craig  Head  (2625)  whose  southern  slopes  drain 
into  Loch  Skene.  Its  sustaining  rivulets  descend  through 

19  "cleuchs,"  "grains"  or  "gills,"  stretching  up  to  the 
boundaries  on  both  sides.     The  coach  road  to  St  Mary's 
Loch  is  parallel  to  the  stream. 

South   of  the  meeting  of  these  three  streams,  where 

Moffat :   the  Well  Burn 



the  vale  is  three  miles  and  a  half  broad,  the  river  flows 
south  between  Wamphray  and  Johnstone  into  the  widen- 
ing valley  of  Mid  Annandale,  which  surrounds  Lochmaben 
and  Lockerbie.  Here  the  oval  basin  contains  a  smaller 
cup — seven  miles  across  from  Quhytewoollen  Hass  (733) 
to  Hightown  Hill  (818) — in  which  lie  the  Lochs  of 
Lochmaben.  Before  reaching  this  depression  the  river 
has  been  joined,  first  by  the  Wamphray  (8)  from  Croft 
Head  (2085),  and  below  Applegarth  by  the  united  streams 
of  Kinnel  and  IE,.  Kinnel  (17)  takes  its  rise  in  the 
uplands  of  Kirkpatrick  Juxta  beyond  Queensberry,  and, 
having  passed  through  the  woods  of  Johnstone,  it  descends 
to  meet  the  JEy  rising  on  the  other  side  of  Queensberry 
and  draining  Kirkmichael  parish.  South  of  a  line  drawn 
between  Lockerbie  and  Lochmaben,  the  Dryfe  (13),  from 
the  east,  running  from  Loch  Fell  (2256)  and  draining  the 
narrow  dale  of  Dryfe,  falls  into  Annan.  Now  bending 
south-west  Annan,  joined  by  the  Milk  (17)  from  the 
east,  in  its  united  stream  of  Milk  and  Corrie,  reaches 
the  lovely  woods  of  Hoddom.  Another  tributary  from 
the  east  is  the  Mein  (7),  from  Tundergarth,  which  mingles 
with  Annan  at  a  point  one  mile  and  a  half  south-south- 
west of  Ecclefechan.  In  an  expansive  Strath,  Annan 
passes  Brydekirk  village,  at  Annan  meets  the  tidal  waters, 
and  two  miles  lower  down  reaches  the  Waterfoot. 

With  devious,  almost  semicircular  course,  the  Kirtle 
(15),  rising  from  the  hills  between  Middlebie  and  Lang- 
holm,  after  draining  Middlebie  and  Kirkpatrick  Fleming, 
falls  into  the  Sark  south  of  Old  Gretna,  and  near  the 
confluence  of  the  river  Esk. 


The  third  great  valley  in  the  county  is  watered  by  the 
Esk  (40).  The  White  Esk  (6)  rises  to  the  north  of 
Ettrick  Pen  (2270)  in  Eskdalemuir.  The  Garvald  (5) 
from  the  western  Fells  joins  the  White  Esk  at  the  700 
feet  level;  and  the  united  streams  swelled  by  the  Mood- 
law,  Rae,  and  other  streamlets  from  the  east,  flow 
southward  beyond  Westerkirk  till,  on  the  west,  they  are 
joined  by  the  Black  Esk.  The  Black  Esk  (12)  takes  its 
rise  at  Jock's  Shoulder  (1754).  Now  styled  the  Esk,  the 
river  takes  several  abrupt  turns  in  a  northerly  direction 
and  is  joined  by  Meggat  Water  (8),  with  Stennies  Water 
from  the  north  of  Westerkirk.  Shut  within  a  narrow 
vale,  less  than  two  miles  broad,  Esk  flows  circuitously  and 
rapidly  to  Langholm  town,  where  it  is  joined  on  the  east 
by  Ewes  Water,  and  on  the  west  by  the  Wauchope  (5). 
The  Ewes  (10)  from  the  north-east  boundary  flows 
through  lovely  defiles  side  by  side  with  the  highway  from 
Carlisle  to  Edinburgh.  Tending  to  the  south-west,  Esk 
descends  through  Canonbie,  being  swelled  on  the  left  bank 
by  the  impetuous  Tarras  (9),  which  rises  at  Hartsgarth. 
After  passing  through  the  wooded  glen  south  of  Lang- 
holm,  past  Canonbie  village,  Esk  enters  England,  being 
joined  below  Nether  Woodhouselee  by  the  Liddel  Water, 
and  turns  away  westward  to  join  the  Eden  and  fall  into 
the  Solway.  Liddel  Water,  after  a  long  course  through 
Roxburghshire,  touches  Dumfriesshire  beneath  Liddelbank 
and  becomes  the  boundary  between  Canonbie  and 
Cumberland  for  over  five  miles. 

The  historic  Sark  (13)  rises  in  the  Collin  Hags,  flows 
by  Middlebie,  between  Half  Morton,  Kirkpatrick-Fleming, 





and  Gretna  parishes  and  Cumberland,  and  falls  into  the 
Esk  south  of  Old  Gretna. 

Loch  Skene  is  a  mountain  loch,  four-fifths  of  a  mile 
long  and  less  than  one-fifth  of  a  mile  broad  on  the  average, 
lying  1700  feet  above  sea-level  in  a  deep  pot  beneath  Loch 
Craig  Head.  This  still  dark  lake  is  the  result  of  the 

Loch  Skene 

confinement  of  the  hill  waters  by  moraines — relics  of  old 
glacier  movements — thrown  in  crescent  shape  across  the 
valley.  Out  of  Loch  Skene  issues  the  Tailburn,  which 
casts  itself  over  a  precipice  forming  the  lovely  cascade 
known  as  The  Grey  Mare's  Tail,  altogether  nearly  400 
feet  high.  The  ruddy  fleshed  trout  of  Loch  Skene  is 
much  prized  by  anglers. 


Around  Lochmaben  several  lochs  remain,  namely  the 
Castle  Loch,  200  acres,  Mill  Loch,  70  acres,  Kirk  Loch, 
60  acres,  Hightae  Loch  and  Marr  Loch,  52  acres,  and 
two  "blind"  lochs:  Grummell  Loch  and  Brummel,  or 
Halleaths,  Loch  are  now  drained. 

Loch  Urr,  623  feet  above  sea-level,  lies  in  Dunscore 
and  Glencairn  parishes,  and  partly  in  Balmaclellan.  It 
measures  137765  acres,  of  which  33  acres  are  in  Bal- 
maclellan, and  33  in  Glencairn.  Out  of  it  flows  the  Urr 
Water.  A  few  smaller  lochs  exist.  Out  of  Townfoot 
Loch,  Closeburn,  flows  a  streamlet  which  descends 
through  the  wild  ravine  of  Crichope  into  the  Cample. 

6.     Geology  and  Soil. 

The  earth  itself  partly  tells  the  story  of  its  origin  and 
growth  below  the  surface  and  upon  it,  and  of  various  forms 
of  vegetable  and  animal  life  which  have  in  succession 
existed  in  ages  long  gone  by.  In  the  crust  of  the  earth 
— our  only  accessible  book — we  can  read  this  ancient 
record  from  the  minerals  and  rocks  composing  it.  The 
term  "rock"  denotes  either  a  material  mass  formed  of 
one  mineral  or  composed  of  more  than  one.  Conse- 
quently it  has  been  found  necessary  to  classify  the  various 
rocks  according  to  their  characteristics  and  differences. 
These  fall  into  three  main  divisions,  with  many  sub- 
divisions in  each,  namely  (i)  unstratified,  massive,  igneous, 
or  eruptive;  (2)  stratified,  sedimentary,  or  aqueous;  (3) 
metamorphic  or  altered  rocks.  For  convenience  the 



terftis  igneous,  aqueous,  and   metamorphic  are  generally 

Grey  Mare's  Tail,  Moffat 

The  igneous  rocks  are  the  earliest  variety,  lie  at  the 
very  base  of  the  crust,  and  have  been  pushed  among  and 
through  the  other  rocks,  somewhat  like  lava  in  its  flow. 


There  they  cooled  slowly,  solidified  under  pressure,  and 
settled.  Their  composition  and  texture  are  very  varied. 
Active  volcanoes  indicate  what  place  and  function  this 
unseen  basal  foundation  of  the  whole  earth  has.  The 
aqueous,  or  sedimentary  rocks,  are  found  in  layers — 
stratified;  and  because  of  this  feature  they  are  of  the 
greatest  importance  to  the  inquirer,  since  they  have  been 
deposited  at  different  times  and  within  their  composition 
preserve  memorials  of  the  various  epochs  they  have  passed 
through.  Within  their  substance  fragments  of  different 
minerals  and  rocks,  of  chemical  precipitates,  such  as  salts, 
and,  still  more  instructive,  of  fossils  of  plants,  fishes  and 
animals,  are  found  in  well-defined  groups.  For  example, 
in  limestone  caverns  stalactites  falling  from  the  roof,  and 
stalagmites  rising  from  the  floor,  are  formed  by  the  de- 
position of  carbonate  of  lime  in  solution ;  and  the  masses 
formed  often  have  encrusted  in  them  many  foreign 
materials.  Similarly  Crustacea,  mollusca,  zoophytes,  and 
foraminifera  ever  eliminate  carbonate  of  lime  from  water, 
and  this  on  deposition  makes  solid  rock.  The  ooze  of 
the  ocean  bed  filled  with  the  skeletons  of  foraminifera 
becomes  a  kind  of  chalk.  Coral,  resembling  limestone, 
is  built  up  in  similar  manner.  Nearly  all  the  land  surface 
and  much  of  the  sea-bed  are  of  the  sedimentary  class. 
The  winds  too  have  been  important  factors  in  gathering 
sand  and  loose  material  together  into  situations  favourable 
to  stratification. 

The  third  class  of  rocks  is  the  metamorphic,  consisting 
of  the  above  two  classes  after  they  have  undergone  altera- 
tion. The  action  of  irresistible  subterranean  forces,  which, 



interacting  with  heat  and  water,  pressed,  crushed,  and  re- 
arranged the  composition  of  the  mineral  elements  giving 
them  crystalline  structure  and  properties,  is  seen  in  the 
resultant  products.  These  are  called  schists  and  range 
from  silky  slates,  or  phyllites,  up  to  coarse  granite-like 

Thus  the  earth,  upon  examination,  tells  how  it  has 
been  acted  upon  by  fire,  water,  air,  and  life  under  law. 
Taking  all  these  facts  into  consideration,  geologists  have 
laid  down  the  order  of  succession  of  the  stratified  formation 
of  the  earth's  crust  as  follows : 

u   o 

>•   o 
5   o 




General  Characteristics 

Boulder  Clay,  Sands,  Gravels. 
Shelly  Sands  and  Gravels. 
Clays,  Marls,  Sands,  Limestones. 
Sands,  Clays,  Loam. 

&   o  I  Cretaceous 
g  ol  Jurassic 
*  "  '  Triassic 

Chalks,  Sandstones,  Clays. 
Shales,  Sandstones,  Limestones. 
Sandstones,  Limestones,  Gypsum,  Salt. 



Old  Red  Sandstone  and  Devonian 
( Ludlow  Beds        ) 
j  Wenlock  Beds      I 
( Llandovery  BedsJ 
f  Caradoc  Beds     ] 
•I  Llandeilo  Beds  I 
(Arenig  Beds      J 


Ordovician  or 
Lower  Silurian 

,  Cambrian 

Red  Sandstones,  Magnesian  Limestones. 
Sandstones,  Shales,  Limestones,  Coal. 
Red  Sandstones,  Slates,  Limestones. 

Sandstones,  Shales,  Limestones. 

Shales,  Slates,  Sandstones,  Limestones. 
Sandstones,  Slates,  Limestones. 

Dumfriesshire  forms  a  part  of  a  high  Silurian  table- 
land which  stretches  from  Port  Patrick  across  country  to 
St  Abb's  head.  This  extensive  belt  consists  almost  wholly 


of  massive  grits,  greywackes  (whinstone),  flags  and  shales, 
except  in  certain  circumscribed  areas  where  the  carboni- 
ferous system  is  in  evidence.  This  table-land  is  hilly, 
conformable  to  the  system.  The  Silurian  strata,  however, 
having  been  subjected  to  great  lateral  pressure,  bent, 
squeezed,  inverted,  and  often  times  cleft,  are  found 
somewhat  complicated,  without  any  remarkable  meta- 
morphism.  The  hills,  irregularly  set,  have  taken  shape 
and  position,  through  no  upheaval,  but  through  the 
erosion  of  the  valleys.  They  resisted  the  scooping  forces 
which  bared  the  hollows  and  sculptured  the  romantic 
craigs  and  dales.  This  Silurian  area  was  in  Palaeozoic 
times  overlaid  by  a  thick  bed  of  Old  Red  Sandstone, 
which  has  totally  disappeared  through  denudation, although 
it  appears  over  the  county  boundary  in  Ayrshire  and 
stretches  away  in  a  north-easterly  direction  to  the  Braid 
Hills,  near  Edinburgh.  In  the  hollows  worn  out  of  this 
high  table-land,  first  Old  Red  Sandstone,  followed  in  order 
by  the  strata  of  the  Carboniferous  system,  then  rocks  of 
the  Permian  and  Triassic  period  were  deposited  to  be  in 
turn  borne  away  except  from  some  depressions  in  the 
vales  of  Nith,  Annan  and  Esk.  In  Spango  basin,  on  the 
northern  boundary,  granite,  older  than  the  Upper  Old 
Red  Sandstone,  invades  the  Silurian  system;  and  dykes 
of  felsite,  diorite  and  other  igneous  rocks  appear  in  the 
Silurian  area  of  the  same  age. 

Before  the  Old  Red  Sandstone  period  passed  away 
and  as  a  result  of  volcanic  action,  igneous  rocks  appeared 
and  in  the  form  of  slaggy,  amygdaloidal  andesites  inter- 
vened between  the  sandstone  and  carboniferous  strata. 


The  lava  flow  is  traceable  between  Tarras  and  Birrens- 
wark,  and  sites  of  volcanic  orifices  are  seen  in  Tarras, 
Liddel,  and  Ewes  dales.  Birrenswark  Hill  is  simply  a 
mass  of  lava  standing  up  through  a  bed  of  Upper  Old 
Red  Sandstone.  There  is  a  visible  outcrop  of  lavas  and 
agglomerates  (with  dolerite  and  gabbro)  on  the  northern 
boundary  near  Wanlockhead,  Bailhill,  Sanquhar,  and 
Euchan  Water ;  and  volcanic  vents  of  the  Permian  age 
can  be  traced  in  that  district.  Only  volcanic  tuffs  are 
found  in  the  Moffat  area. 

The  Lower  Silurian  system,  in  its  two-fold  division 
of  Llandeilo  and  Caradoc  beds,  is  represented  in  seven 
groups  of  varying  character  and  thickness.  Examples 
of  Llandeilo  formation  are  seen  near  Raehills,  of  Caradoc 
at  Hartfell  Spa,  and  of  Llandovery  at  Dobb's  Linn,  all 
near  Moffat.  Around  Moffat  there  is  a  large  zone  of 
black  shale  accompanied  with  true  deep-sea  deposits,  with 
grey  shales  and  yellow  shattery  clayey  bands.  Between 
Moffat  and  Sanquhar  lies  the  Dalveen  group  of  hills, 
where  a  series  of  fine  blue  and  grey  greywackes  and 
shales  similar  to  those  of  the  Llandeilo  bed  is  found. 
The  Hartfell  black  shales  disappear  to  the  west  of  San- 
quhar, their  place  being  taken  by  grey  sandy  shales  with 
dark  seams  through  them ;  and  in  the  district  south  of 
Eskdalemuir  they  pass  into  Wenlock  beds.  A  line  drawn 
from  Ewes  Water  Head  by  Langholm  to  Mouswald  forms 
the  boundary  between  Llandovery  and  Wenlock.  An- 
other line  drawn  from  Langholm  to  Ruthwell  indicates 
where  the  Upper  Silurian  is  covered  by  the  Upper  Old 
Red  Sandstone  and  by  Carboniferous  rock.  An  interesting 


portion  of  the  Caradoc  area — greywackes  and  grits  with 
coarse  conglomerates  exposed — is  found  in  the  upper  part 
of  Penpont  and  Tynron,  extending  westward  from  Scaur, 
Chanlock  and  Shinnel  Waters.  These  conglomerates 
contain  pebbles  of  quartz,  quartz  rock,  lydian-stone,  blue 
and  grey  greywackes,  grey  shales  and  pieces  of  black 
shale.  Graptolites  were  found  among  the  fragments  of 
black  shale. 

The  Queensberry  Group  is  a  great  series  of  massive 
grits  of  Tarannon  Age,  systematically  jointed,  with  Barlae 
shales  on  top,  and  grey  and  blue  shales  at  base  resting  on 
the  lower  black  shale  bed,  and  spreading  over  the  south- 
western quarter  of  the  shire  into  Kirkcudbright.  In  the 
Cluden  Valley  the  black  shale  is  thickly  covered  with 
drift,  and  just  crops  out  north  of  Glenesslin.  In  the 
Scaur  Valley  there  is  a  considerable  area  of  the  "Grieston" 
series,  and  in  the  blue  shales  of  the  vicinity  the  trilobite 
has  been  unearthed. 

Of  metamorphism  in  the  Lower  Silurian  area  there 
is  a  fine  example  at  Bail  Hill,  Kirkconnel,  where  the 
transition  from  ordinary  greywacke  and  shale  into  crys- 
talline amorphous  rocks  is  seen.  The  resultant  mass  is 
a  curious,  varied,  undefinable  blend.  In  the  area  around 
Wanlockhead  the  Lower  Silurian  rocks  are  traversed  by 
two  veins,  one  running  north-west  and  south-east,  the  other 
west-north-west  and  east-south-east.  These  contain  lead, 
iron,  barytes,  sulphuret  of  zinc,  copper-pyrites,  and  silver. 
Gold  is  found  in  the  alluvia  of  the  streams.  Both  lead 
and  silver  are  worked  to  profit.  The  lie  of  the  strata  in 
the  lead-producing  region  is  as  follows :  greywacke ;  Black 



Jack  (zinc-blende  decomposing  into  clay,  ^  inch);  "vein- 
stuff"  (greywacke  ground  and  mixed  with  quartz,  i  J  inch) ; 
calc-spar  (^  to  I  inch);  galena  (^  inch);  "vein-stuff" 
(quartz  ore  and  quartz,  2  to  3  inches);  blue  greywacke 
(calcareous,  3^  feet) ;  hard  quartz  (iron  pyrites  in  "flowers," 
7  inches) — total,  8  feet  3  inches. 

The  Carboniferous  system  is  well  illustrated  in  several 
parts  of  the  shire — in  a  tract  from  Langholm  to  Ruthwell, 
in  Middle  Nithsdale,  and  in  Upper  Nithsdale.  The  layers 
descend  in  the  following  order — sandstone,  shales,  reddened 
and  yielding  plants — coal  measure.  These  Carboniferous 

Sanquhar  Coalfield 

rocks  still  lie  in  ancient  hollows  worn  out  of  the  Silurian 
rocks  in  the  Palaeozoic  age,  first  filled  with  Old  Red 
Sandstone,  next  eroded,  and  later  filled  with  Carboniferous 
and  Permian  strata,  which  also  were  hollowed  into  the 
present  depressions.  This  primeval  Carboniferous  valley 
— now  called  Nithsdale — begins  at  Kirkconnel,  where  a 
barrier  would  have  diverted  Nith  into  the  Clyde.  Con- 
sisting of  sandstones — white,  grey,  and  red — of  dark  shales 
with  seams  of  coal,  iron-stone,  and  limestone,  this  series  is 
in  evidence  around  Sanquhar,  in  Carron  Water,  and  the 
Nith  at  Drumlanrig. 


The  Kirkconnel  and  Sanquhar  coal-beds  lie  in  an  area 
measuring  nine  miles  long  with  a  breadth  averaging  from 
two  to  four  miles,  and  is  an  extension  of  the  Ayr  coalfield. 
The  strata  descend  I2OO  feet,  and  the  coal  measures  lie 
above  the  depressed  surface  of  that  part  of  the  Silurian 
area  which  a  fault  has  lowered.  In  different  seams,  with 
intervening  strata,  are  found  "creepie"  coals,  calmstone, 
twenty-inch,  daugh,  splint  and  swallow-craig  coals.  In 
one-half  of  the  field,  lying  to  the  south-west,  three 
doleritic  dykes,  throwing  out  intrusive  sheets,  disturb 
the  measures  and  render  the  working  of  coal  unprofitable 
there.  In  Upper  Nithsdale  the  Silurian  barrier  did  not 
sink  beneath  the  sea-level  till  the  latter  part  of  the  Car- 
boniferous period.  At .  Sanquhar  red  marls  and  clays, 
lying  in  the  upper  part  of  the  coal  measure,  are  avail- 
able for  the  manufacturing  of  bricks,  terra-cotta,  pottery, 
tiles,  etc. 

Canonbie  coalfield  is  said  to  represent  the  true 
coal  measures  of  the  central  valley  of  Scotland.  In  the 
valleys  of  the  Liddel  and  the  Esk  the  nine  following  zones 
are  represented  in  their  ascending  order :  the  Whita 
sandstone ;  the  cement-stone  group ;  Fell  sandstones ; 
Glencartholm  volcanic  group;  marine  limestone  group 
with  coal  seams;  millstone  grit;  Rowanburn  coal  group; 
Byreburn  coal  group;  red  sandstones  of  Canonbie.  In 
the  Glencartholm  volcanic  zone,  a  number  of  new  fishes, 
decapod  crustaceans,  phyllopods  and  scorpions  have  been 
found  in  the  calcareous  shale  associated  with  the  tuffs. 

As  Nith  courses  south  to  Drumlanrig  the  Carboniferous 
system,  through  which  it  has  cut  its  channel,  appears  lying 


on  the  Lower  Silurian  rocks.  Permian  rocks  appear  above 
them  both.  The  Carron  Valley  presents  both  Carboni- 
ferous and  Permian  rocks  in  varying  positions,  the  latter 
sometimes  overlapping  the  former.  In  the  Thornhill 
Basin,  that  is  from  Blackwood  north  to  the  Lowther 
foot-hills,  Carboniferous  rocks  of  the  earliest  type  appear, 
having  fossiliferous  red  limestone  bands  lying  above  or 
below  older  and  later  sandstone,  coloured  red  and  reddish 
grey.  The  limestone  is  confined  to  the  lower  part  of  the 
basin,  and  is  worked  at  Closeburn  and  across  the  Nith  at 
Barjarg  in  Keir,  where  the  Carboniferous  rocks  are  best 
displayed.  At  Closeburn  the  strata  are  thus  disposed : 
red  shaly  sandstone  and  purple  and  red  mottled  shales ; 
red  Magnesian  limestone,  14  feet;  red  sandstones  and 
clays,  1 8  feet;  thick  red  almost  pure  limestone,  18  feet. 
Fossils  common  to  the  formation  are  found  here.  The 
other  series  of  marine  limestone  found  in  Esk,  Penton, 
Ecclefechan,  and  Kelhead  have  been  wrought  to  commer- 
cial advantage.  Kelhead  is  still  an  extensive  work. 

From  Cumberland  to  Ayrshire  the  Permian  rocks  lie 
on  the  top  of  the  Carboniferous  system.  They  exist 
in  two  series — rocks  of  a  lower  volcanic  character  and  a 
brick-red  sandstone  of  considerable  thickness.  In  the 
Permian  age  lava  streams  flowed  over  some  parts  of  this 
area,  then  cooled  into  a  band  upon  the  Silurian  or  Car- 
boniferous surface  ;  and  upon  this  porphyritic  bed  the 
stratified  rocks  of  the  Permian  order  rest.  In  places  the 
porphyritic  bed  is  interstratified  with  tuff  and  red  sand- 
stone :  in  others  the  brick-red  sandstones  are  full  of  volcanic 
dlbris  and  bands  of  red  volcanic  tuff.  Above  Crichope 

H.  D.  3 

Crichope  Linn 


Linn,  Thornhill,  the  Carboniferous  rocks  disappear,  and 
porphyritic  rock  and  sandstone  of  the  Permian  series  take 
their  place.  At  Locherben,  between  the  systems,  lies  a 
bed  of  breccia  made  up  of  Silurian  fragments,  and  blocks 
of  porphyrite  imbedded  in  a  brick-red  ashy  paste.  In  the 
Dumfries  Basin,  where  the  Carboniferous  rocks  and  vol- 
canic series  of  Permian  rocks  are  absent,  the  brick-red 
sandstones  rest  on  a  coarse  breccia  above  the  Silurian  rock. 
This  breccia  is  composed  of  pink  felstone  with  hornblende, 
grey  and  purplish  greywacke,  grey  shale,  quartz  rock  and 
grey  schist.  There  is  a  great  demand  for  building  pur- 
poses for  the  easily  hewn  Permian  sandstones  got  in  the 
quarries  at  Gatelawbridge,  Closeburn,  Locharbriggs,  Corse- 
hill,  Annanlea,  Cove,  and  Corncockle.  In  Corncockle 
Dr  Duncan  of  Ruthwell  discovered  the  footprints  of 
extinct  reptilia.  The  grey  calcareous  sandstone  of  King's 
Quarry  and  Auchennaight,  Nithsdale,  affords  massive 
material  for  edifices  such  as  Morton  and  Drumlanrig 
Castles.  The  Triassic  rocks  rest  un conformably  on  all 
the  older  formations  within  Dumfriesshire. 

The  great  ice-sea,  in  moving  from  the  west  in  an 
easterly  and  south-easterly  direction  over  this  area,  rounded 
off  the  hills  and  left  their  rock-faces  in  many  parts  scarred 
with  the  striae  which  tell  of  this  passage.  The  ultimate 
result  was  the  deposition  of  the  boulder  clays,  beds  and 
banks  of  gravels  and  sand  in  the  valleys,  the  dropping  of 
such  a  grand  landmark  as  the  historic  "trysting"  stone 
of  Clochmaben  in  Gretna,  and  other  transported  boulders 
taken  from  Criffel  across  country  over  the  Borders,  the 
laying  down  of  the  fine  glacial  clay  at  Ryedale  and 



Hannahfield,  Dumfries,  and  the  formation  of  the  vast 
moraines  which  are  a  striking  feature  at  Loch  Skene, 
and  of  the  raised  beaches  seen  near  Queensberry. 

The  richest  soils  are  to  be  found  on  the  higher  alluvial 
flats  by  the  banks  of  the  rivers  and  streams ;  but  by  Nith, 
Cluden,  and  Cairn,  where  there  is  a  wide  distribution  of 
gravelly  drift,  the  soils  are  generally  light.  As  a  general 
rule,  the  arable  soil  rests  upon  a  subsoil  of  clay,  especially 
in  the  more  level  tracts  of  country,  in  the  valleys,  or  in 
the  uplands.  Nearly  all  broken  land  is  tinged  with  a 
ruddy  hue  arising  from  the  presence  of  oxide  of  iron. 
The  Corncockle  sandstone  exhibits  a  light  terra-cotta  red 
colour  and  this  hue  is  very  prevalent  in  the  sandstone  belts 
upon  the  ploughed  fields.  The  analysis  of  the  stone  shows 
— silica  95'iO;  alumina  i'i6;  oxide  of  iron  '85;  lime 
•31;  potash  1*25;  magnesia  'IO;  soda  *2O;  titanic  oxide 
•13;  combined  water  '90.  The  weight  of  the  stone  is 
126  ibs.  for  every  cubic  foot. 

7.     Natural  History. 

In  recent  times — recent,  that  is,  geologically — no  sea 
separated  Britain  from  the  Continent.  The  present  bed 
of  the  German  Ocean  was  a  low  plain  intersected  by  the 
waters  of  the  present  Rhine,  which  had  among  its  tribu- 
taries the  various  eastward- flowing  streams  of  Britain.  At 
that  period,  then,  the  plants  and  the  animals  of  our  country 
were  identical  with  those  of  Western  Europe.  But  the 
ice  age  came  and  crushed  out  life  in  this  region.  In  time, 


as  the  ice  melted,  the  flora  and  fauna  gradually  returned, 
for  the  land-bridge  still  existed.  Had  it  continued  to  exist, 
our  plants  and  animals  would  have  been  the  same  as  in 
Northern  France  and  the  Netherlands.  But  the  sea 
drowned  the  land  and  cut  off  Britain  from  the  Continent 

Drumlanrig  Castle 

before  all  the  species  found  a  home  here.  Consequently, 
on  the  east  of  the  North  Sea  all  our  mammals  and  reptiles, 
for  example,  are  found  along  with  many  which  are  not 
indigenous  to  Britain.  In  Scotland,  however,  we  are 
proud  to  possess  in  the  red  grouse  a  bird  not  belonging 
to  the  fauna  of  the  Continent. 


Dumfriesshire  is  a  profitable  resort  for  naturalists. 
Nearly  all  the  trees  and  shrubs  indigenous  to  Britain, 
60  in  number,  are  found  flourishing  within  this  area. 
There  is  no  trace  of  the  ancient  Caledonian  Forest,  save 
what  is  preserved  in  the  name  of  part  of  it — Holywood ; 
but  in  remote  glens  there  are  patches  of  old  self-sown, 
free  growing  copses  of  hazel  and  birch,  with  willow  and 
alder  in  moist  situations.  The  mosses  sometimes  give  up 
bulky  trunks  of  oak  and  Scots  fir  indicating  how  widespread 
the  natural  forest  was.  In  1756  the  woods  of  Drumlanrig 
were  felled  by  a  storm  and  converted  into  rudimentary 
peat,  a  kind  of  transformation  within  historic  times  testified 
to  by  many  peat  hags.  Some  grand  trees  have  survived 
storm  and  axe  for  centuries,  and  remain  models  for  those 
landholders  who  have  enriched  the  landscape  with  orna- 
mental and  commercial  plantations,  which  have  ripened 
and  given  place  to  other  profitable  woods.  Nevertheless 
only  one  twenty-third  part  of  the  soil  is  thus  occupied. 

There  yet  survives  round  Drumlanrig  Castle  a  small 

remnant  of  that 

"  noble  horde, 
A  brotherhood  of  venerable  trees," 

whose  destruction  by  a  Duke  of  Queensberry  in  the  end 
of  the  eighteenth  century  stirred  the  poets  Burns  and 
Wordsworth  into  mournful  verse.  Some  were  so  large 
as  to  produce  the  impression  of  an  antiquity  antecedent 
to  the  advent  of  the  Douglases  into  Nithsdale  in  the  four- 
teenth century.  The  policies  of  Drumlanrig  contain  a 
sycamore  100  feet  high  and  18  feet  3  inches  in  girth  at 
5  feet  above  ground,  as  well  as  an  oak  89  feet  high 


and    15    feet   10   inches    in    girth.      Among  other   trees 
approaching  100  feet  high  are  two  silver  firs  respectively 

13  feet   ii  inches  and   13  feet  4  inches  in  girth,  and  a 
Douglas  pine  12  feet  4  inches  in  girth.     With  this  de- 
struction  of  the    forest,   shortly   before   the   exit  of  the 
Douglases   in    1810,  is   dated  also   the   disappearance   of 
the  wild  ox — 

"  Mightiest  of  all  the  beasts  of  chase 

That  roam  in  woody  Caledon." 

Few  districts  can  show  such  immense  beeches  as  those 
which  encircle  the  lonely  churchyard  of  Dalgarnock, 
several  being  over  4  feet  in  diameter.  In  Glencairn 
churchyard  ash  trees  12  feet  in  circumference,  and  oak 
IO  feet,  are  seen.  On  Craigdarroch  estate,  Glencairn, 
thick  timber  grows — beech,  16^  feet  in  circumference, 
at  5  feet  from  ground;  horse-chestnut,  n  feet  10  inches; 
larch,  13!  feet,  with  clean  stem  30  feet  long,  cut  in  1906; 
silver  fir,  14  feet  8  inches  at  base;  sycamore,  14  feet. 
A  crab-tree,  7  feet  3  inches,  near  Woodhouse,  a  horse- 
chestnut,  13  feet  6  inches,  at  Old  Crawfordton,  a  sycamore, 

14  feet  4  inches,  at  Castlehill,  and  yew  trees  over  10  feet 
in  girth  at  Snade,  are  the  finest  trees  in  Cairn  Valley. 
The  juniper  flourishes  on  the  hill  sides,  between  Penpont 
and  IVloniaive.      In  Hoddom  parish  are  several  avenues 
of  beeches  of  large  proportions,  referred  to  by  Thomas 
Carlyle  as  "  the  kind  beech-rows  of  Entepfuhl." 

On  the  Springkell  estate  there  are  many  magnificent 
forest  trees,  of  which  the  following  are  examples:  larch 
with  girth  of  9  feet  I  inch,  at  5  feet,  and  90  feet  high; 
Norway  spruce,  10  feet  girth,  100  feet  high;  Scots  firs, 



10  feet  girth  and  60  feet  high,  and  9  feet  girth  and  80 
feet  high;  silver  fir,  17  feet  5  inches  girth  and  100  feet 
high;  oak,  13  feet  2  inches  girth  and  69  feet  high;  beech, 
13  feet  9  inches  girth  and  70  feet  high;  sycamore,  14  feet 
9  inches  girth  and  60  feet  high;  Spanish  chestnut,  14  feet 
girth  and  55  feet  high  ;  lime,  13  feet  6  inches  girth  and 

Hoddom:    "The  kind  beech-rows" 

70  feet  high;  ash,  10  feet  9  inches  girth  and  70  feet  high; 
Huntingdon  willow,  13  feet  9  inches  girth  and  60  feet 

The  trees  around  Closeburn  Castle  exhibit  large  pro- 
portions, an  oak  measuring  16  feet  8  inches  in  circum- 
ference, a  beech  18  feet  I  inch,  an  ash  in  the  Town  Park 
26  feet  8  inches,  an  ash  at  Shawsholm  19  feet  4  inches, 



and  a  Scots  fir  at  Shawsholm,  these  measurements  being 
taken  at  2  feet  above  ground. 

A  silver  fir,  straight  as  an  arrow,  105  feet  high  adorns 
the  woods  of  Bonshaw,  and  stands  beside  a  gigantic  poplar 
rooted  by  the  Kirtle.  Similar  fine  examples  stand  on  the 
banks  of  the  Esk  between  Langholm  and  Canonbie. 

Lochwood  Oaks 

The  remnant  of  the  old  oak  forest  around  Lochwood 
Tower,  where  gnarled,  rugged,  hoary  specimens,  many 
of  them  over  18  feet  in  circumference,  still  flourish,  are 
probably  the  most  interesting  trees  in  the  county.  On 
either  side  of  the  ruined  tower  stand  an  equally  massive 
ash  and  elm  in  vigorous  life.  These  giants,  the  two  great 
willows  on  the  Cundy  Road,  Thornhill,  the  yews  of 


Drumlanrig  and  Snade,  Dunscore,  and  many  others  equally 
noble,  indicate  how  very  suitable  Dumfriesshire  is  for 

There  is  a  wonderful  variety  of  flowering  plants  and 
of  grasses  in  this  region,  four  hundred  of  the  better  known 
genera  being  represented  between  the  sea-shore  and  the 
hill  tops.  The  distribution  of  plant  life  is  interesting. 
The  ling  (Calluna  vulgaris),  blaeberry,  daisy,  thyme, 
crowberry,  thistle,  geranium  (sylvaticum\  bugle,  clover 
(Trifolium  repem\  watercress,  dog-violet,  wood-sage,  male- 
fern  and  other  well-known  plants  reach  high  altitudes. 
Foxglove  and  wild  hyacinth  are  common  up  to  noo  feet. 
Ranunculus  and  Primula  up  to  600  feet — the  peat-hag 
limit.  Of  Carex  there  are  35  varieties,  of  ferns  24,  of 
Salix  1 6  (13  being  in  Nithsdale,  14  in  Annandale,  and 
5  in  Eskdale),  of  Potamogeton  16,  of  rush  10,  of 
Poa  10,  of  Lycopodium  5,  of  Equisetum  6,  and  of 
Myosotis  5. 

The  following  rare  Flora  flourishes — 

(1)  On  the  seashore:  horned  poppy,  Isle  of  Man  cab- 
bage,  sea-rocket,   sea-holly,   parsley    dropwort,   sawwort, 
sea-cat's  tail  grass. 

(2)  In  holm-pastures  and  shady  places :  globe  flower, 
monkshood,  narrow-leaved  bitter  cress,  dusky  crane's-bill, 
dwarf  whin,  viscid  Bartsia. 

(3)  In  mosses  and  bogs :  English  sundew,  marsh  An- 
dromeda,   pale    butterwort,    prickly    fen    sedge,    whorled 

(4)  On   river   sides  and   in  water:    great  watercress, 
all  wort,  upright  vetch,  cowbane,  quill  wort,  water-pepper. 


(5)  On  hilly  pastures  and  rocky  places:  vernal  sand- 
wort,    alpine    chickweed,  alpine   enchanter's  nightshade, 
cutleaved  saxifrage,  baldmoney,  wintergreen  (two  varieties), 
interrupted  clubmoss. 

(6)  On  high  lands :  alpine  meadow  rue,  spring  Poten- 
tilla,  alpine  saxifrage,  alpine  Saussurea. 

The  following  ferns  are  found: — Tunbridge  filmy  fern 
(Hymenophyllum  unilaterale\  parsley  fern,  sea  spleenwort, 
green  maidenhair,  alpine  woodsia,  holly  fern. 

Of  the  vertebrates  a  goodly  number  survive.  The 
horns  of  a  reindeer,  with  the  bones  of  roe-deer,  red-deer, 
Bos  pri  ml  genius,  and  the  skull  of  the  brown  bear  ( Ursus 
arctos),  found  under  a  peat-bog  on  the  Shaw  property, 
indicate  some  of  the  animals  formerly  existing  here. 
The  horns  of  a  wild  ox  were  found  in  Glencairn  parish 
in  1906:  the  skull  of  another,  found  in  a  Nithsdale  moss, 
is  preserved  in  the  Grierson  Museum,  Thornhill.  Pen- 
nant, in  1772,  saw  a  herd  of  the  wild  cattle  in  Drumlanrig 
Park.  They  were  driven  away  about  the  end  of  the 
eighteenth  century.  The  red-deer  became  extinct  locally 
in  1815,  as  did  also  the  roe-deer.  The  latter,  however, 
has  been  reintroduced  for  half  a  century  and  is  increasing. 
The  fallow  deer,  where  existing,  is  a  domesticated  animal. 
The  wild  cat  was  last  seen  about  1813.  The  squirrel, 
after  becoming  scarce,  has  begun  to  increase  again.  The 
foumart,  badger,  and  black  rat  are  extinct.  The  weasel, 
ermine,  and  vole  still  survive.  The  brown  rat  and  mouse 
are  on  the  increase.  The  fox  gives  sport  in  Annandale 
and  Eskdale.  The  wolf  was  a  wild  beast  of  chase  in 
Eskdale  in  the  thirteenth  century.  A  small  herd  of  wild 


goats  browses  on  Saddleyoke  and  Brandlaw  in  the  wilds 
of  Moffat.  The  otter  still  hunts  and  is  occasionally  hunted 
in  the  rivers.  A  seal  occasionally  comes  up  the  Firth, 
where  the  porpoise  and  several  species  of  whale  are  seen 
at  times.  The  hedge-hog  is  common.  The  rabbit  and 
European  hare  are  subjects  of  commerce,  and  the  moun- 
tain, or  white  hare,  long  confined  to  the  high  hills  on  the 
watershed,  is  now  increasing  on  inland  moorlands.  The 
adder  is  less  plentiful ;  the  lizard  is  not  uncommon.  The 
glow-worm  is  common  in  Tynron,  Moffat,  and  some  other 

Of  the  Avifauna  a  good  report  can  be  made,  there 
being  no  fewer  than  70  residential  species,  31  summer 
visitants,  31  winter  visitants,  30  occasional  visitors,  56 
species  captured  in  the  district,  and  39  specimens  not 
completely  authenticated.  To  begin  with  the  larger 
birds — it  is  about  forty  years  since  the  last  golden  eagle 
was  noticed  in  Nithsdale.  About  1825  a  very  fine  speci- 
men was  shot  in  Morton  parish  and  long  preserved  in  Burn 
farm.  An  osprey  was  supposed  to  build  in  Loch  Skene, 
and  a  specimen  was  again  seen  there  in  1881,  while  an- 
other was  marked  at  Drumlanrig  in  1840.  The  buzzard, 
or  "gled,"  which  formerly  nested  in  the  shire,  increased 
there  during  the  time  of  the  vole  plague,  1891-3,  and 
now  appears  only  in  spring  and  winter.  Peregrine  falcons 
have  from  12  to  16  nests  ;  ravens  the  same  number.  The 
lesser  hawks  are  common.  The  ptarmigan  is  extinct 
locally.  The  capercaillie  is  rare.  Fourteen  heronries 
and  145  rookeries  still  exist  in  the  county.  Rooks  and 
jackdaws,  despite  the  annual  slaughter  of  them,  are  not 



decreasing.  The  chough  is  only  an  accidental  visitor. 
Of  birds  which  have  been  rarely  seen  in  the  shire  are 
the  great  skua  gull,  little  auk,  red  necked  grebe,  storm 
petrel,  and  the  whiskered  tern  (Hydrochelidon  hybridd]. 
The  bittern  bleats  but  rarely  now.  The  black-headed 
gull  nests  in  12  places  and  is  on  the  increase.  Since  the 

The  Whiskered  Tern 

(Shot  near  Friar's  Carse,  Holywood,  in  1894,  and  noiv  in 
the  Royal  Scottish  Museum,  Edinburgh] 

passing  of  "The  Wild  Birds  Protection  Acts,"  1880-1904, 
and  the  County  Protection  Orders  under  section  76, 
"Local  Government  (Scotland)  Act,"  1889,  there  has 
been  a  stoppage  of  the  cruel  practice  of  destroying  rare 
birds,  and  a  consequent  increase  of  such  beautiful  birds 
as  the  British  jay,  kingfisher,  goldfinch,  tufted  duck, 


nightjar,  cuckoo,  owl,  lapwing,  and  the  smaller  "minstrels 
of  the  grove."  In  summer  the  warbling  of  birds  in  the 
woodlands  is  a  characteristic  of  the  county. 

The  intelligent  occupation  of  shootings  has  helped  the 
increase  of  the  more  harmless  members  of  the  winged 
tribe,  and  the  necessary  preservation  of  the  stock  of  the 
edible  order.  The  shootings  in  Dumfriesshire,  144  in 
number,  are  now  the  basis  of  an  important  industry — 
that  of  game  rearing  and  preserving.  The  pheasant, 
introduced  some  years  before  1794,  together  with  the 
increasing  woodcock  and  snipe,  have  a  prominent  place 
in  the  woodlands.  The  red  grouse  (Lagopus  Scoticus), 
the  black  grouse  and  his  grey  hen  (Tetrao  tetrlx\  and 
the  partridge,  notwithstanding  their  annual  disasters,  are 
plentiful.  In  1869  no  fewer  than  247  blackcock  fell 
in  one  royal  shoot  at  Kirkconnel. 

The  lochs  and  sea-margins  are  vocal  with  the  sharp 
screams  of  dotterel,  sandpiper,  goose,  duck,  gull,  tern,  and 
other  waders,  swimmers,  and  divers,  of  which  there  is  a 
delightful  variety. 

Of  the  freshwater  fishes  of  the  Solway  area,  that  is, 
from  the  Esk  to  Lochryan,  there  are  20  varieties. 
Nearly  every  stream  contains  trout;  rivers  have  trout, 
sea-trout,  grayling,  and  salmon.  Nearly  every  loch  has 
pike  or  "gedd."  Roach  is  got  in  Annan  and  Lochar; 
chub  in  Annan;  bream  in  Lochmaben  lochs  and  Annan; 
smelt  in  Nith  and  Annan ;  and  tench  in  Upper  Nithsdale. 
There  are  also  little  goby,  stickleback,  flounder,  minnow, 
loach,  and  Allis  shad.  Eels  and  lamprey  are  common. 
The  sea  lamprey  comes  up  the  rivers  to  spawn.  The 


sturgeon  is  found  in  the  estuaries.     Salmon,  shrimps,  and 
oysters  are  a  valuable  asset. 

The  Loch  Skene  trout  is  a  lovely  fish  with  pink  flesh 
and  red  spots,  and  weighs  half  a  pound.  The  Castle 
Loch,  Lochmaben,  contains  seven  varieties  of  fish — pike, 
perch,  roach,  bream,  chub,  loch  trout,  and  the  famous 
vendace.  The  vendace  (Coregonus  vandesius\  only  to  be 
caught  by  net,  is  an  uncommon  fish.  It  occurs  in  three 
lochs  at  Lochmaben,  and  in  Windermere  and  Bassen- 
thwaite  lakes.  It  is  said  to  be  a  ground  feeder  and  shy 
of  bait.  Specimens  weigh  as  much  as  one-sixth  of  a 
pound.  When  the  vendace  leaves  its  own  element  for 
the  Annan  river,  it  degenerates  and  soon  succumbs. 

8.     Round  the  Coast. 

The  coast  line  beginning  at  Dumfries  and  continuing 
to  a  point  east  of  Old  Gretna,  measures  32  miles.  In 
its  inward  flow  the  tide  touches  the  parishes  of  Gretna, 
Dornock,  Annan,  Cummertrees,  Ruthwell,  Caerlaverock, 
and  Dumfries.  The  Nith,  confined  within  its  banks, 
flows  in  a  stream  100  yards  broad  to  Kingholm  Quay 
on  the  left  bank  2j  miles  from  Dumfries.  Here  vessels 
of  300  tons  discharge.  Two  miles  farther  down  on 
the  same  side  is  Kelton,  at  one  time  a  flourishing  port 
where  shipbuilding  was  carried  on.  Flowing  between 
the  green  merse  on  the  Kirkcudbright  side  and  the 
opposite  low  lands  of  Caerlaverock,  and  leaving  at  low 
tide  a  sludgy  margin,  Nith  reaches  Glencaple  Quay,  less 


than  six  miles  from  Dumfries.  Here  there  are  14  feet 
of  water  at  high  tide. 

After  this  point  the  bank,  cut  by  the  river,  begins  to 
widen  out  and  is  known  as  Blackshaw  Bank — six  miles 
long  from  Nith  to  the  channel  of  the  Lochar  and  three 
miles  broad.  Thereafter  the  bank  is  called  Priestside 
Bank  and  stretches  other  four  miles  to  Powfoot.  A 
good  road  runs  parallel  to  the  Nith,  and  passing  the  base 
of  Banks  Hill  (297)  and  Plantation,  leads  to  the  mag- 
nificent ruined  castle  of  Caerlaverock — the  "Ellangowan" 
of  Sir  Walter  Scott's  novel,  Guy  Mannenng.  This  moated 
stronghold  of  the  Maxwells  stands  less  than  50  feet  above 
sea-level  and  is  partly  sheltered  by  a  wood  thrashed  with 
sea  winds  and  spindrift.  South-east  of  the  castle  lies  a 
small  merse  on  the  upper  edge  of  which  are  found  the 
Saltcot  hills,  reminiscent  of  the  manufacture  of  salt  here 
in  the  olden  time.  Writing  in  1612,  John  Monipennie 
says,  "  Upon  the  banks  of  Sulway  in  June  and  July  the 
country  people  gather  up  the  sand  within  the  flood  marke, 
bringing  it  to  land,  and  laying  it  in  great  heaps,  thereafter 
they  take  the  salt  Spring  water  and  cast  it  upon  the  sand, 
with  a  certain  device  causing  the  water  to  run  through 
the  sand  into  a  hollow  purposely  made  to  receive  the 
water,  which  water  being  boyled  in  a  little  vessel  of  lead 
there  is  made  thereof  good  whyte  salt  after  the  temperance 
of  the  weather."  Between  the  Brow-well,  with  its  sad 
memories  of  dying  Burns,  and  Powfoot  many  of  these 
pits  are  visible.  Further  east  from  Saltcots  the  dark  stream 
of  Lochar,  after  many  a  bend,  touches  the  Sol  way  just 
opposite  the  fine  woods  around  the  old  castle  and  modern 

H.  D.  4 


mansion  of  Comlongon — a  seat  of  the  Earl  of  Mansfield — 
and  near  to  the  Golf-links,  one  mile  south  of  Ruthwell. 
On  this  southern  coast  the  territory  does  not  rise  100  feet 
above  sea-level  until  the  parish  of  Cummertrees  is  reached, 
when  a  bank  of  that  height  is  found  just  above  Queens- 
berry  Bay  and  the  village  of  Powfoot.  Here  the  small 
stream  called  the  Pow  burn  falls  into  the  Solway.  Powfoot 
is  a  growing  fashionable  watering-place  of  recent  creation. 
A  few  years  ago,  an  insignificant  hamlet  of  white-washed 
houses,  occupied  by  fishermen,  less  than  a  mile  south-west 
of  Cummertrees  village,  it  has  been  transformed  into  a 
lively  summer  resort,  where  amid  ornamental  grounds, 
or  on  greens  for  tennis  and  bowling,  the  bracing  breezes 
off  the  Firth  may  be  enjoyed. 

Thence  for  two  miles  inland  the  ground  lies  low  and 
flat,  and  at  three  miles  from  Powfoot  the  Waterfoot  of 
Annan  is  reached,  after  the  traveller  half-way  has  passed, 
near  the  shore,  Newbie  Cottages,  and  thereafter  the  Mains 
and  ruined  fortalice  of  Newbie.  Newbie  Tower  was 
formerly  a  seat  of  the  Johnstones.  A  little  distance  west 
of  Newbie  Cottages  the  boundary  line  between  the  Solway 
Firth  and  the  channel  of  the  river  Eden  is  placed.  The 
tide,  however,  goes  14  miles  beyond  this  point  up  to 
Alison's  Bank  Farm  a  mile  distant  from  Gretna  Green 

At  Barnkirk  Point,  Annan  Waterfoot,  a  lighthouse 
stands,  and  from  this  point  the  river  Annan  takes  almost 
a  semicircular  course  for  nearly  two  miles  up  to  Annan 
town  and  quay.  Steam  vessels  of  over  500  tons  can 
sail  up  to  this  quay. 



A  magnificent  railway  viaduct  spans  the  channel  of 
the  river  Eden,  and  stretches  from  Seafield  to  a  spot  near 
Bowness  on  the  English  shore.  One  mile  and  a  half  east 
of  the  viaduct  the  Eden,  near  Dornockbrow,  flows  into 
two  channels — Eden  and  Bowness  Wath — and  their 
waters  meet  again  beneath  the  viaduct.  The  Dornock 
fishings  were  formerly  very  rich.  On  the  green  fields  of 

Solway  Viaduct 

Dornock,  on  25th  March,  1333,  was  fought  a  battle 
between  Sir  Antony  Lucy  and  the  Knight  of  Liddesdale, 
in  which  the  latter  was  defeated  and  captured,  many  Scots 
also  being  killed. 

The  vast  mud  flats  between  the  two  kingdoms  open 
out,  and  at  a  point  south  of  TordufF  the  rivers  Esk  and 
Eden  unite.  Here  the  Esk  becomes  the  national  boundary, 




and  its  circuitous  channel  reaches  to  a  point  east  of  Red- 
kirk  point,  where  formerly  stood  Rainpatrick  Church. 
Here  the  waters  of  the  Kirtle  and  the  Sark,  just  united 


to  the  south  of  Old  Gretna,  flow  into  the  Esk.     Above 
this  point  Sark  becomes  the  boundary. 

On  the  flat  land  between  the  Kirtle  and  the  Sark,  at 
their  junction,  on  the  farm  of  Old  Gretna,  a  few  yards 


above  high  water-mark,  stands  a  historic  stone,  called 
Clochmabenstane,  the  last  of  a  circle  of  stones  which 
stood  there.  It  is  a  granite  boulder  over  7  feet  in  height, 
and  17  feet  in  circumference.  At  it  the  wardens  of 
the  marches  held  their  Courts  in  the  olden  time.  Here 
was  the  termination  of  the  Scottish  ford  at  Sulwath — the 
ford  by  which  the  opposing  armies  often  crossed  ;  and 
opposite  to  it,  on  the  English  shore,  is  Burgh-by-Sands, 
where  King  Edward  I  died.  Around  Clochmabenstane, 
in  the  battle  of  Sark,  on  23rd  October,  1448,  Hugh 
Douglas  defeated  Percy  with  great  slaughter. 

The  velocity  with  which  the  tide  careers  up  Solway 
Firth  with  a  high  breast  of  waters  is  remarkable,  and  this 
characteristic  inspired  Sir  Walter  Scott  to  compare  with 
it  impulsive  human  affection  :  "  Love  flows  like  the 
Solway  and  ebbs  like  its  tide."  "  In  the  winter  season," 
writes  Neilson,  the  historian  of  the  Solway,  "  the  scene, 
impressive  under  any  conditions,  is  much  intensified, 
especially  if  the  tide  is  high  and  there  is  a  southerly 
gale  behind.  Then  the  sea  approaches  with  great  speed, 
gaining  as  it  goes :  the  wave  is  white  with  tumbling  foam ; 
a  great  curve  of  broken  surf  follows  in  its  wake  :  and  the 
white  horses  of  the  Solway  ride  in  to  the  end  of  their  long 
gallop  from  the  Irish  sea  with  a  deep  and  angry  roar." 


9.     Coastal  Gains  and  Losses. 

The  present  configuration  of  the  lowland  portions  of 
the  shire,  which  have  records  for  centuries  of  tillage  on 
the  same  areas  without  perceptible  change,  leads  to  the 
conclusion  that  it  is  only  under  the  surface  on  the  one 
hand,  or  high  up  on  the  ridges  on  the  other,  we  can  find 
proof  either  of  the  loss  or  gain  of  land  by  the  action 
of  the  sea.  In  the  locality  of  Queensberry,  on  a  hill 
behind  Locherben,  are  observable  three  parallel  lines  of 
terraces  at  the  height  of  980,  1000,  and  noo  feet  respec- 
tively. The  lower  ledge,  running  from  Garroch  to  Capel 
Burn,  is  broken  at  Capel  and  exhibits  a  base  of  stiff  red 
boulder  clay,  overlaid  with  a  stratum  of  fine  sand,  in  turn 
covered  with  well  water-worn  gravel  intermingled  with 
sand.  When  the  sea  laved  these  high  margins  few 
eminences  between  Hutton  and  Corrie  and  the  confines 
of  Kirkcudbright  emerged  out  of  the  waters  covering 
Annandale,  Nithsdale  and  Glencairn. 

The  sea  on  the  west  side  has  a  barrier  in  Criffel  and 
its  spurs ;  but  on  the  east  side  of  the  Nith  a  long  ridge 
rising  up  from  Dumfries  to  Trohoughton  (312),  an  old 
fort  and  beacon,  runs  south  and  tapers  out  at  the  sea 
shore.  Parallel  to  this  ridge,  another  ridge  four  miles 
away  descends  to  sea-level  at  Barnkirk  Point.  Between 
these  parallels  lies  Lochar  Moss,  a  little  over  40  feet  above 
sea-level.  Tradition  has  preserved  its  suggestive  history: 

"  Once  a  wood  and  syne  a  sea ; 
Now  a  moss  and  aye  will  be." 


In  1754  Smeaton  the  engineer  reported  that  Lochar 
could  be  reclaimed  at  a  cost  of  £2952.  At  present  the 
peat  is  being  cut  on  Ironhirst  Moss  for  commercial 

The  u  finds  "  from  strata  in  the  moss,  which  is  still 
insufficiently  examined,  do  not  contribute  much  of  its 
story  from  the  Neolithic  age  onwards.  According  to  a 
writer  in  the  Statistical  Account,  "There  is  a  tradition 
universally  credited  that  the  tide  flowed  up  this  whole 
tract  above  the  highest  bridge  in  the  neighbourhood.  In 
the  bottom  of  the  moss  sea-mud  is  found  :  and  the  banks 
are  evidently  composed  of  sea  sand.  A  few  years  ago 
a  canoe  of  considerable  size  and  in  perfect  preservation, 
was  found  by  a  farmer  when  cutting  peats,  four  or  five 
feet  below  the  surface.  Near  the  same  part  of  the  moss, 
and  about  the  same  depth,  a  gentleman  found  a  vessel  of 
mixed  metal... antiquities  of  various  kinds  are  found  in 
every  part  of  this  moss  where  peats  are  dug,  even  near 
its  head,  such  as  anchors,  oars,  etc. ;  so  that  there  is  no 
doubt  of  its  having  been  navigable  near  a  mile  above  the 
highest  bridge,  and  fully  twelve  miles  above  the  present  flood 
mark."  An  extensive  forest  must  have  arisen  on  the  area 
from  which  the  sea  receded,  and  stems  and  trunks  of  oaks 
which  grew  in  the  submarine  clays  are  found,  while  further 
inland  among  the  sandy  and  gravelly  deposits  the  roots  of 
fir  trees  are  preserved  in  the  moss. 

On  the  west  side  of  Nith  a  raised  beach  near  Cargen 
Water,  three  miles  south-west  of  Dumfries,  and  in  Kirk- 
cudbrightshire, was  pierced  for  a  well.  After  going  through 
sand  and  silt  for  15  feet,  through  peat  for  18  feet,  and 


through  14  feet  of  clay,  gravel  was  struck.  Into  the 
clay,  where  marine  shells  were  found,  the  roots  of  a  fir 
tree  had  penetrated.  Beside  it  were  remains  of  charred 
wood,  bundles  of  moss,  and  traces  of  phosphate  of  iron, 
as  if  indicating  the  work  of  man.  The  recession  of 
the  sea  had  thus  permitted  the  growth  of  vegetation,  and 
the  woodland  had  been  again  submerged  and  covered 
with  the  later  deposits.  A  50  feet  beach  stretches  from 
Park  near  Maxwelltown  southwards  to  Cargenholm,  and 
in  the  flats  of  Cargen  a  later  beach  of  25  feet  in  height 
indicates  the  recession  of  the  sea.  These  have  their 
corresponding  levels  on  the  banks  of  Mouswald  and 
Ruthwell.  But  utilitarian  gains  of  merseland  have  been 

At  its  lower  part  the  Lochar  Water  was  confined 
within  constructed  embankments  which  on  giving  way 
permitted  the  river  to  overflow  lands  already  reclaimed 
and  to  make  a  new  channel  through  the  sand  and  silt. 
At  the  head  of  the  estuary  important  changes  have  taken 
place  in  historical  times.  A  carefully  prepared  map  dating 
from  1552  shows  what  these  changes  have  been,  and  how 
the  Solway  has  been  receding,  leaving  inland  many  broad 
acres  now  under  the  plough.  The  high  contour  lines 
around  Gretna  indicate  how  strong  have  been  the  efforts 
of  the  tide  to  wash  away  that  solid  barrier  under  which 
the  rivers  have  laid  their  ever  increasing  deposits  forming 
a  larger  delta.  This  map  shows  with  great  precision 
above  Redkirk  Point  (25  feet)  a  sketch  of  the  handsome 
structure  of  a  church,  with  tower  and  steeple,  called 
Rainpatrick,  then  existing,  which  has  been  entirely  washed 


away  together  with  the  foreland  by  the  sea.  At  this  place 
the  monks  of  Holme  Cultram  beyond  Solway  possessed 
saltworks  which  were  ultimately  acquired  by  the  monks 
of  Melrose  in  1294. 

In  living  memory  the  Eden  and  the  Solway  tide  have 
encroached  on  land  between  Seafield  and  Dornockbrow — 
the  latter  name  indicating  a  slight  elevation — and  removed 
a  "  merse  "  from  60  to  80  feet  broad.  Barricades  erected 
to  stop  these  encroachments  were  swept  away  by  high 
tides  and  the  sea  remained  conqueror.  A  contemporary 
chronicler  records  in  November,  1627,  the  excessive  rise 
of  the  Solway  tide,  which  surrounded  "the  house  of 
Old-Cock-pool,"  carried  off  seventeen  of  the  salt  makers 
on  Ruthwell  Sands,  and  destroyed  many  cattle. 

10.     Climate  and  Rainfall. 

The  position  of  Dumfriesshire,  surrounded  on  three 
sides  by  high  hills,  and  on  the  fourth  side  lapped  by  the 
warm  western  seas,  tends  to  the  creation  of  a  climate  on 
the  whole  mild  and  productive  of  fertility  and  longevity. 
The  force  of  wind  and  saline  rain,  driven  from  the  ocean 
into  the  valleys,  is  moderated  by  the  interposition  of  many 
high  barriers  which  affect  atmospheric  conditions,  so  that 
sunshine,  shower,  mist,  and  drying  winds  have  a  relative 
distribution,  in  consequence  of  which  the  climate  is 
temperate  as  to  heat  and  rain.  Within  the  county  there 
are  twenty-four  meteorological  stations,  including  the 
national  one  at  Eskdalemuir.  The  names  and  positions 
of  the  three  affording  statistics  given  here  are  Drumlanrig 


Gardens  in  Middle  Nithsdale,  191  feet  above  sea-level; 
Dumfries,  155  feet;  Comlongon  in  Ruthwell,  74  feet. 
To  these  may  be  added  Cargen,  85  feet,  on  the  Kirkcud- 
bright side  of  the  Nith  below  Dumfries.  Thus  every 
variation  can  be  appraised. 

The  average  barometer  for  the  year  1909  taken  at 
the  Crichton  Institution,  Dumfries,  above  the  tidal  limit, 
was  29*818°;  but  there  was  a  higher  reading  at  Cargen, 
and  a  lower  at  wooded  Drumlanrig.  For  the  past  fifty 
years  the  average  barometer  recorded  at  Cargen  indicated 
29*827°,  and  that  is  the  mean  of  all  the  records,  between 
the  highest,  30*928°,  which  occurred  on  Qth  January, 
1896,  and  the  lowest,  27*620°  which  was  read  on  8th 
December,  1886. 

The  temperature  recorded  for  1909  was  on  the  general 
average  46*2°  Fahr.;  but  at  Cargen  a  little  higher,  46*5°; 
and  on  an  average  of  50  years  there  47*6°  or  1*4°  higher. 
The  last  highest  records  are  82°  at  Drumlanrig  on  I3th 
July,  1909,  and  87°  at  Jardington  on  the  preceding  day; 
and  the  lowest  1*3°  at  Eskdalemuir  on  27th  January. 
The  highest  temperature  for  50  years  was  90*4°,  taken 
at  Cargen  in  August,  1876,  and  the  lowest  taken  there 
in  December,  1860,  was  —  4°.  The  highest  annual  average 
temperature  was  49*2°  in  1868  with  the  barometer  at 
29*758°;  and  the  lowest,  45*3°,  in  1892  with  the  barometer 
at  29*811°.  Snow  fell  on  19  days  during  1909.  The 
temperature  of  the  Solway  Firth,  having  the  benefit  of 
the  "  Atlantic  Drift "  of  heated  surface  water,  is  higher 
than  that  of  the  rivers  falling  into  it,  and  its  water  has 
a  higher  temperature  than  the  air, 

Rainfall  map  of  Scotland 

(By  Andrew   Watt,  M.A,) 

Cambridge  Univ.  /V<7»<i 


The  last  general  average  rainfall  was  49*91  inches, 
with  slightly  over  50  inches  at  Cargen.  Here  in  1909 
the  fall  was  nearly  3  inches  over  that  average,  and  nearly 
8^  inches  over  the  average  of  50  years,  which  was  44*18. 
The  wettest  year,  1872,  showed  63-50  inches,  and  the 
driest,  1880,  only  3077  inches  at  Cargen.  In  1909  the 
wettest  areas  in  the  county  were  around  Jarbruck,  Glen- 
cairn,  59*42;  Kinnelhead,  Beattock,  59*20;  Langholm 
(Westwater),  55*23  ;  Moffat  (Craigielands),  53*73  ;  Ewes, 
54-30  ;  Cargen,  52*65  ;  Eskdalemuir,  51*20  ;  Drumlanrig, 
47-99.  There  are  dry  spots  around  Dumfries — Joybank, 
41*17  ;  Comlongon,  41*68  ;  Crichton  Institution,  43*55. 
Stations  at  Canonbie,  Lochmaben  and  Lockerbie  showed 
over  45  inches ;  but  two  other  stations  at  Lochmaben 
indicated  43*91  or  an  excess  of  3-2  upon  an  average  of 
1 8  years.  The  average  rainfall  at  73  stations  in  Scotland 
was  41*36,  so  that,  except  in  Dumfries  itself,  the  average 
for  the  county  is  above  the  general  average  of  the  kingdom. 

Dumfriesshire  enjoys  about  one-third  of  the  possible 
sunshine.  During  1910  the  sunshine  recorded  at  Com- 
longon, Ruthwell,  was  1444  hours,  at  Dumfries,  1368, 
and  at  Eskdalemuir,  1275.  The  highest  record  was  223 
in  May  at  Comlongon,  and  the  lowest  31  in  December 
at  Dumfries.  The  average  per  month  was  120  at  Com- 
longon, 114  at  Dumfries,  and  106  at  Eskdalemuir.  From 
March  to  September,  the  average  was  above  152,  computed 
from  the  three  registers. 

The  humidity  of  the  shire  is  86  p.c.  While  at 
some  stations  the  weather  is  not  registered  as  calm  or 
variable,  at  others  it  is  proved  to  be  very  variable.  Few 


thunder-storms  occur.  Twenty-five  per  cent,  of  days  are 

The  prevailing  winds  are  out  of  the  west  quarter,  the 
north-west  wind  however  blowing,  at  one  station,  one- 
third  more  days  than  the  south-west  wind,  which  shows 
a  considerable  shifting  towards  due  west,  where  the  lofty 
Galloway  ranges  cause  deviations.  According  to  observa- 
tions made  at  Cargen,  which  has  its  own  peculiar  wind 
record,  in  1909  the  west  wind  blew  108  days,  in  1908, 
1 29  days,  and  in  1 907,  1 2 1  days,  but  in  1 906  only  96  days. 
The  variations  noted  at  Drumlanrig,  Dumfries,  and  Cargen 
are  remarkable.  Easterly  wind  is  not  prominent.  Take 
for  example  the  differences  of  direction  of  wind  shown  at 
three  places  contemporaneously  in  January,  1909,  reckon- 
ing from  north  round  by  east  and  south  to  north  again : 

Drumlanrig,  north,  o,  o,  o,  2,  o,  24  west,  2,  34  north-west. 
Dumfries,  north,  6,  i,  3,  7,  3,  20  „  12,  8  north-west. 
Cargen,  north,  10,0,0,0,1,  6  „  28,  17  north-west. 

This  proves  how  surroundings  influence  climatic  effects. 
Drumlanrig  has  an  immunity  from  thunderstorms  and 
gales  in  comparison  with  Dumfries  and  Cargen.  At  the 
latter  station  the  mean  wind-force  is  sometimes  higher, 
sometimes  lower  than  at  Dumfries,  although  it  is  in  no 
place  excessive,  being  seldom  scaled  above  3.  The  gales 
which  devastated  Scotland  in  1879  and  1883  spent  their 
full  force  on  the  woods  of  the  county  and  levelled  hundreds 
of  thousands  of  splendid  trees. 

The  conjoint  interaction  of  sunshine,  rain,  mist  and 
breeze  makes  the  climate  agreeable  and  invigorating,  while 


the  facility  for  artificial  drainage  is  another  factor  in  the 
increasing  immunity  of  the  inhabitants  from  diseases 
which  were  formerly  a  sore  scourge.  Everywhere  there 
is  a  conspicuous  absence  of  dust  in  the  atmosphere,  there 
being  few  public  works  to  pollute  it  with  smoke  and  less 
than  usual  road  dust  swirled  up  from  the  tough  highways, 
which  are  made  of  the  best  kind  of  macadam — felstone 
dolerite  and  the  hardest  greywacke. 

ii.      People — Race,     Type,     Language, 

Many  races  have  contributed  their  blood  to  form  the 
native  population  on  the  soil  of  Dumfries  ;  and,  in  con- 
sequence, although  many  families  bear  ancient  names, 
and  trace  their  origin  to  a  remote  antiquity,  there  is  no 
distinctive  type  of  individuals  left.  Of  the  aborigines,  of 
an  Iberian  type,  of  which  the  Gaway  or  Galwegian  Picts 
were  probably  the  expiring  remnant,  there  are  so  few 
traces  that  conjecture  takes  the  place  of  record.  In  that 
part  of  Northern  Britain  to  which  early  geographers 
assigned  the  honourable  place-name  of  Valentia  in  which 
Dumfriesshire  was  included,  the  Romans  found  the 
folk  called  Selgovae,  probably  hunters,  keeping  to  the 
east  side  of  Novios  or  Nith,  and  the  Novantae,  also 
known  as  Niduari  and  Picts,  upon  the  Nith  and  westward 
from  it.  On  the  south  side  of  the  Solway  they  located 
Brigantes,  who  occupied  part  of  the  province  of  Maxima 
Caesariensis.  The  Brigantes,  evidently  a  Brythonic — 


British  or  Welsh — race  of  fighters,  overran  their  neigh- 
bours, and  finally  cornered  the  painted  pagans  in  the 
wilds  of  Galloway.  In  Galloway  these  Picts  remained 
distinct,  with  separate  laws  and  customs,  probably  too 
with  language  modified  after  their  contact  with  Celts 
and  Iro-Northmen,  an  almost  independent  race,  who 
fought  at  the  Battle  of  the  Standard,  and  a  strong  political 
factor  down  to  the  fourteenth  century.  This  forced 
seclusion  may  account  for  the  greater  abundance  of 
primitive  remains,  weapons,  and  dwellings  of  the  Neo- 
lithic age  in  the  district  west  of  the  Nith.  It  was  among 
these  pagans,  whose  thieving  habits  secured  for  them  the 
opprobrious  titles  of  "  Galuvet "  and  u  the  wild  men  of 
Galloway,"  that  the  British  missionary,  Ninian,  laboured. 
Of  their  tongue  we  appear  to  have  survivals  in  the  many 
unexplained  monosyllabic  place-names  descriptive  of  certain 
permanent  landmarks  in  the  shire. 

After  the  removal  of  the  Roman  arms,  the  British, 
or  Kymry  (hence  Cumbria,  Cumberland,  Cummertrees) 
spread  over  Southern  Caledonia,  and  were  piously  ministered 
to  by  British  missionaries  whose  churches  were  dedicated 
to  Martin,  Ninian,  Blaan,  and  Mungo — foundations  still 
existing.  Holding  their  lands  in  Dunscore  from  time 
immemorial,  the  family  of  Welsh,  the  last  of  whom  there 
was  Jane  Welsh  Carlyle  who  possessed  Craigenputtock, 
may  well  have  sprung  from  that  early  British  race.  Their 
language  survives  everywhere  in  relation  to  prominent 
objects  described  by  caer,  I'm,  pen,  cors,  craig,  alt,  man,  tre, 
ros  and  other  terms.  Their  "  caer,"  or  fort,  is  much  in 
evidence.  Many  families,  long  bound  to  the  soil  here, 



and  named  Karrs  or  Kerrs,  Carsons,  Carruthers,  Carlyles 
or  Carls,  Crechtons,  Kirkpatricks,  locally  known  as  Caer- 
patricks,  may  be  the  descendants  of  the  early  holders  of 
the  forts. 

In  turn  the  Briton  or  Welshman  was  overrun  by  two 
streams  of   Celts,  one  coming   direct  from   Ireland   and 

Craigenputtock :    Carlyle's  House 

another  circuitously  descending  out  of  north-west  Strath- 
clyde.  It  may  be  suspected  that  they  found  traces  of 
a  primitive  people  like  themselves,  with  a  similar  if  not 
an  identical  tongue.  Their  teachers  brought  the  cult  of 
Patrick,  Bridget  and  Michael  to  churches  named  after 
these  patron  saints.  If  the  conquest  of  the  Gael  was  not 


complete  their  fixture  of  place-names  was,  so  that  this 
area  might  still  find  a  place  in  the  Highlands,  so  prevalent 
are  the  auchens,  bens,  glens,  duns,  drums,  bracks,  minnys  and 
carries.  Families  too  are  proud  of  old,  not  imported,  clan- 
names — for  the  clan  system  survived  to  the  fifteenth 
century.  MacRory,  MacMath,  MacCubbin,  Mac- 
Gowan,  MacCririclc,  MacDouall,  MacDougal  (Dubhgall), 
MacLachlan  (Lochlan),  MacCulloch,  MacMurdo,  Ma- 
gachan,  MacEwan,  Kelloclc  (Ceallach),  MacMichael, 
MacMillan,  Macglethery  (i.e.  MacGregor)  are  local 
names  of  people,  some  of  whom  had  chieftains,  or  feudal 
lords  to  own  and  protect. 

A  charter  of  the  twelfth  century,  given  by  Radnulf, 
son  of  Dunegal,  at  "  Dronfres,"  was  witnessed  by  "  Gil- 
christ,  son  of  Brun,  Glendonrut  Bretnach,  Gilcomgal 
Macgilblaan,  Udard,  son  of  Uttu,  Walder  son  of  Gil- 
christ."  Here  we  see  the  vassals  or  friends  of  Nithsdale's 
great  over-lord  drawn  from  all  the  races,  from  the  ab- 
original to  the  Teuton  and  Norman.  "  Gilcomgal  Mac- 
gil-blaan,"  that  is,  the  servant  of  the  monastery — the 
son  of  the  servant  of  (Saint)  Blaan,  is  a  most  interesting 
reminiscence  of  the  Celtic  monastic  cell  of  Saint  Blaan 
in  Caerlaverock  parish,  and  a  reminder  of  an  ecclesiastical 
descent.  Brun,  Blain,  and  Gilchrist  are  still  family  names 
in  the  shire. 

Thus  the  fusions  went  on.  For  a  time  Dumfriesians, 
like  the  Swiss  of  some  cantons,  may  have  been  trilingual. 
The  mixed  population  next  met  invading  English,  Danish, 
and  Viking  Northmen.  A  notable  instance  of  the  heroic 
racial  spirit  is  recorded  regarding  a  British  leader,  named 

H.  D.  5 


Constantine,  who  fell  at  Lochmaben,  in  879,  in  a  gallant 
attempt  to  lead  his  countrymen  to  the  aid  of  the  Mother- 
land in  Wales.  The  earlier  Scandinavian  emigrants,  who 
crossed  the  seas  to  settle  in  eastern  England,  in  course  of 
time  found  their  way  across  Northumbria  to  the  Celtic 
region  of  Dumfries,  where  they  left  traces  in  numerous 
place-names,  and,  probably  later,  in  the  runes  on  Ruth- 
well  Cross.  Everywhere  one  finds  localities  distinguished 
by  Anglo-Danish  words  bearing  on  their  composition — 
-dale,  -garth,  -wald,  -myre,  -haugh,  -clench,  -shaw,  -burn, 
-water,  -holm  and  many  others. 

The  coming  of  the  Northmen  round  the  west  coasts, 
in  viking  expeditions,  finally  to  settle  in  Cumberland, 
Dumfries  and  Galloway  as  farmers,  had  a  modifying 
effect  upon  the  tongue  of  the  earlier  Scandinavian  and 
Danish  conquerors,  of  which  there  are  manifest  traces  on 
both  sides  of  the  Borders.  The  residence  of  the  North- 
man is  remembered  in  Arkland  (ergh,  a  sheiling),  Hartfell 
(fell,  a  hill),  Waterbeck  (beck,  a  stream),  South  Grain  Pike 
(grain,  a  tributary  brook),  Middlebie  and  Lockerbie  (hie, 
a  farm),  Murraythwaite  (thwalte,  a  clearing,  or  old  pasture 
land),  Burnside  and  Burnhead  (stetr,  a  pasture,  and  hefd, 
a  head),  The  Rigg,  The  Riddings,  and  many  another 
place.  Indeed  when  the  modern  farmers  in  these  places 
speak  of  the  elding  (fuel),  rice-fence  (hris),  the  sile  or  siler 
(sill,  a  sieve),  the  handsel  (handsol,  a  bargain),  a  gowpen- 
full  (gaupn,  both  hands  fuH),  a  quey  (kviga,  a  young 
cow)  ;  and  when  the  poachers  of  the  hopes,  sikes  and  gills 
of  Eskdale  refer  to  the  "  leister "  (Ijostr)  or  "  waster," 
with  its  witters — barbs — and  the  "  roughies,"  or  dry 


branches  which  light  "  the  burned  water,"  they  are  using 
the  nomenclature  of  their  predecessors  there — the  North- 
men, farmers  and  hunters.  Of  a  Frisian  settlement  in 
Dumfries,  which  by  some  is  supposed  to  mean  "  the  fort 
of  the  Frisians,"  there  is  no  trace,  and  no  record.  To 
what  extent  the  residence  of  the  Northmen  and  the 
infusion  of  Norse  blood  changed  the  native  population 
and  the  vernacular  we  have  little  evidence.  One  church, 
at  least,  bears  a  Northman's  name,  Closeburn  (Kil, 
Osbiorn).  The  influence  of  the  Anglian  may  be  trace- 
able in  that  similarity  to  modern  German  pronunciation, 
both  consonantal  and  vocalic,  which  distinguishes  the 
Dumfriesian's  expressions,  and  also  in  the  longer  persist- 
ence in  the  vernacular  of  words  which  come  with  greater 
fluency  from  Border  lips,  such  as,  yird,  nowt,  gang,  gate^ 
byre^  muck,  scart,  scoot  and  others  equally  definitive. 

The  introduction  of  Anglo-Norman  settlers  in  Cum- 
bria by  Prince  David  for  a  time  affected  local  blood  and 
speech  to  a  slight  degree.  Of  the  old  family  names — 
Mundells,  Mounceys,  Menzies,  Bruns,  Herries — few 
survive.  A  century  ago,  in  the  old  English  tongue, 
which  the  rural  Dumfriesian  spoke,  there  were  survivals 
from  the  Anglo-Normans  in  terms  in  common  use,  such 
as  dule,  gabbe,  poke,  pooche,  tache^  palmie,  sort,  and  the  like, 
which  were  just  as  likely  to  have  survived  from  feudal 
times  as  to  have  been  imported  in  the  era  of  the  later 
Stewart  monarchs. 

The  development  of  railway  travelling,  by  which  the 
people  can  so  easily  shift  their  habitations,  has  markedly 
affected  the  stratification  of  the  languages  preserved  in  the 



local  vernacular,  and  even  the  broader  accent  is  on  the 
wane.  Still  on  the  Borders  there  is  a  dialect  somewhat 
different  from  those  observed  in  Cumberland  and  North- 
umberland. In  Annandale,  words  ending  in  ee  or  ea  are 
pronounced  ei,  or  eye-ee  :  oo  is  pronounced  ow  :  ue  or  ew 
becomes  e-yu ;  true  being  pronounced  tre-yu.  The  personal 
pronoun  /  is  pronounced  aw.  I  am  going  becomes  Am 
gawn.  ril  make  sure,  becomes  A's  mak  sure,  as  anciently 
it  was  4's,  or  Fs,  mak  siccar.  Short  o  is  generally  pro- 
nounced long,  so  that  a  rod  becomes  a  road,  and  vice  versa. 
The  letter  a  is  often  shortened  to  permit  a  more  liquid 
sound  to  follow  the  letter  /,  thus  awl  becomes  d-ll.  A 
curious  iteration  is  noticeable  in  Hoddom,  where  the 
words,  give  it  to  me,  become  gae  me  tit.  In  Lockerbie 
a  couplet  runs: 

Yow  an'  meyee,  an'  the  bern  dor  keyee, 
The  sow  an'  the  threyee  weyee  pigs." 

In  Canonbie  the  pronoun  thou  is  pronounced  ta  ;  is  is 
used  for  both  art  and  are.  "  Is  ta  gawn  tae  Kerle  ? " 
(Carlisle)  is  answered  affirmatively  u  I  is." 

The  peculiarities  in  the  dialect  of  Nithsdale  are  fast 
dying  out.  One  still  hears  the  following  exchanges : 
A* m  (I  am),  eer  (you  are,  thou  art),  hay's,  he  eyees  (he  is), 
oo  r  (we  are),  y'ir  and  ee*r  (you  are),  tha'r  (they  are),  was 
(was),  wur  (were),  hes  (has),  micht  (might),  cud  (could), 
wud  or  wad  (would),  sud  (should),  wull  (will),  man  (must), 
-In  and  -an  (-ing),  u  for  /  (budden  for  bidden).  A  good 
specimen  of  the  Nithsdale  patois  is  the  following  :  "  Can 
ye  gie's  a  wee  puckle  o'  'oo  to  stap  i'  the  nebs  o'  ma 
shoon,  for  they're  unco  shauchly  and  they'll  coup  me 


owre  i'  the  glaur  ?  " — "  Can  you  give  me  a  small  particle 
of  wool  to  stuff  in  the  points  of  my  shoes,  because  they 
are  very  capsizeable  and  they  will  turn  me  over  in  the 
mud  ? " 

In  1901  the  population  of  Scotland  was  4,472,043, 
of  whom  72,571,  or  one  sixty-seventh  part,  resided  in 
Dumfriesshire,  there  being  34,362  males  and  38,209 
females,  or  67  persons  to  every  square  mile.  Dumfries- 
shire was  thus  fourteenth  of  the  counties  for  numbers 
of  inhabitants.  In  1911  the  population  of  Scotland  had 
increased  to  4,759,445  persons,  and  that  of  this  county 
to  72,824  persons.  The  inhabitants  of  the  county  now 
form  one  sixty-fifth  part  of  the  entire  population,  and  in 
regard  to  their  other  relations  stand  precisely  the  same  as 
before.  In  1881  the  population  of  the  county  was  76,140; 
in  1851,  78,057;  and  in  1801,  54,597. 

12.    Agriculture. 

After  the  cessation  of  the  wars  with  England,  the 
Scottish  Borderers  devoted  themselves  assiduously  to 
tillage  and  the  rearing  of  cattle  and  sheep.  Great 
impetus  was  given  to  agriculture  in  the  end  of  the 
eighteenth  century  through  new  methods  introduced  by 
Sir  James  Kirkpatrick  of  Closeburn,  and  his  successors 
the  Stuart-Menteiths,  by  Douglas  of  Kelhead,  and 
Patrick  Miller  of  Dalswinton  and  others,  who  converted 
poor  lands  into  show  estates  by  improved  drainage  and 
the  advantageous  use  of  lime.  In  Middle  Nithsdale  farmers 


secured  a  good  financial  position  on  the  transference  of 
the  Queensberry  estates  to  the  House  of  Buccleuch,  when 
the  latter  for  compensation  set  aside  the  long  leases 
granted  by  the  Douglases,  and  in  years  of  great  com- 
mercial prosperity  beautified  and  improved  all  the  hold- 
ings. The  troublesome  system  of  commonty  in  course 
of  time  died  out. 

The  present  importance  of  the  farming  industry  may 
be  appraised  on  consideration  of  the  fact  that  there  are 
2692  holdings  upon  an  available  land  surface  of  664,119 
acres,  of  which  only  30,275  acres  are  occupied  by  woods. 
Besides  these  acres  26,175  acres  of  foreshore  and  tidal 
water  remain.  Of  the  2692  holdings,  497  are  under 
5  acres,  882  under  50  acres,  1146  under  300  acres,  and 
167  over  300  acres.  The  land  is  thus  portioned  out: 
382,112  acres  of  mountain  and  heath-land  used  for 
grazing;  118,733  acres  °f  permanent  grass;  134,486 
acres  of  arable  soil  ;  30,275  acres  of  woodland.  The 
valuation  of  the  county  is  ^450,062,  exclusive  of  rail- 
way8 £42,546. 

Tenants  occupy  223,710  acres  laid  down  in  grass  and 
crops,  and  owners  retain  29,509  acres.  Of  these  fields 
39,349  acres  produce  20,054  tons  °f  na7  fr°m  permanent 
grass,  and  17,715  tons  from  clover,  sanfoin  and  other 
sown  grasses.  Oats  cover  41,333  acres  and  yield 
189,299  quarters,  or  an  average  of  36*64  bushels  to  the 
acre  ;  barley  takes  up  590  acres,  and  yields  2751  quarters, 
or  an  average  of  37*31  ;  wheat  is  grown  on  65  acres,  and 
produces  320  quarters,  or  39  on  an  average,  commanding 
a  good  price.  Rye  is  grown  on  17  acres. 


Large  tracts  are  required  for  turnips  and  swedes, 
17,280  acres  yielding  305,931  tons  of  these  roots  ;  3450 
acres  produce  25,543  tons  °^  potatoes  ;  and  305  acres 
produce  4824  tons  of  mangold. 

Among  other  products  are  beans  14  acres,  peas  4, 
carrots  34,  onions  i,  cabbage  226,  and  rape  304  acres. 
No  flax  is  grown.  There  are  many  sheltered  and  sunny 
patches  suitable  for  fruit  growing,  but  this  industry  has 
not  become  popular.  Apples  grow  on  2 if  acres,  pears 
on  2j,  cherries  on  if,  plums  on  2j,  and  there  are  38 J  of 
mixed  orchards.  Strawberries  are  grown  on  28  acres, 
raspberries  on  5f ,  currants  and  gooseberries  on  20  J,  and 
there  are  23  J  acres  of  mixed  small  fruit. 

The  work  of  this  vast  region  employs  5878  horses 
including  brood  mares,  and  1868  young  horses  await 
breaking  in.  Of  62,359  cattle  upon  the  fields,  21,628 
are  cows  and  heifers,  and  40,731  are  calves  and  older 
cattle.  556,988  is  the  grand  total  of  the  fleecy  flock,  of 
which  243,369  are  ewes  kept  for  stock,  and  227,506 
lambs.  Of  8546  pigs,  1096  are  breeding  sows.  Of  the 
6517  men  and  1393  women  employed  in  agriculture  in 
1901,  3644  were  farm  servants.  The  latter  number  was 
a  decrease  of  1211  men  since  1881. 

The  distribution  of  the  various  breeds  of  sheep  in  the 
county  is  interesting,  140,000  cheviots  being  kept  for 
breeding  on  the  green  hills  of  the  districts  round  Lang- 
holm,  Lockerbie,  Moffat,  Closeburn,  and  Sanquhar. 
Blackfaced  sheep  to  the  number  of  100,000  are  kept  on 
the  high  uplands  and  heathery  hills  of  the  north  and  west. 
Small  flocks  of  Leicesters  and  Yorkshires,  numbering 


about  2000,  graze  on  farms  around  Dumfries,  Lockerbie 
and  Moffat.  Crossbreds,  Oxfords,  Suffolks  and  Shrop- 
shires,  2000  in  all,  are  seen  on  good  farms  near  the 
Solway.  The  South  Down,  Dorset  and  Spanish  breeds 
are  also  represented  in  small  numbers.  In  all  244,000 
ewes  form  the  breeding  stock  of  the  sheep-masters  in 

The  cattle  trade  is  to  the  farmer  a  matter  of  first 
importance,  and  sales  of  live-stock  are  periodically  held  in 
Dumfries,  Annan,  Langholm,  Lockerbie,  Thornhill  and 
Carlisle.  The  following  are  the  numbers  annually  dis- 
posed of  in  the  auction  marts  of  one  firm  :  Langholm 
(fat  and  store  stock),  cattle  600,  sheep  12,000  ;  Dumfries 
(fat  stock),  cattle  2500,  sheep  25,000  ;  Lockerbie  (fat  and 
store  stock),  cattle  2700,  sheep  120,000.  In  addition 
noo  pigs  and  1500  calves  are  sold.  At  Annan,  the 
numbers  of  live  stock  sold  are  increasing  year  by  year. 
A  speciality  is  the  sale  of  short-horn  bulls,  900  being 
disposed  of  at  special  spring  auctions.  Many  store  cattle 
are  sold  in  May  and  June,  and  10,000  lambs  after 

At  the  mart,  Thornhill  station,  during  the  past  five 
years,  the  average  sales  have  been  1278  cattle,  41,029 
sheep,  64  calves,  and  91  pigs,  of  the  value  of  £43,239 
annually.  In  1907  nearly  £50,000  worth  of  live-stock 
was  sold  here. 

The  White  Sands  of  Dumfries  have  for  generations 
been  famous  for  the  sales  of  horses  and  other  live-stock. 
Seed  markets  are  also  held  in  Lockerbie,  Annan  and 
Dumfries  in  the  spring. 


The  30,275  acres  devoted  to  timber  growing  produce 
a  considerable  tonnage  of  both  soft  and  hard  wood,  which 
is  required  for  props  in  pits,  fences,  cart-building,  and 
various  other  industries. 

13.     Industries  and  Manufactures. 

The  volume  and  value  of  the  industries,  trades,  and 
manufactures  of  the  county  may  be  calculated  from  the 
number  of  persons  employed  in  the  various  branches  of 
activity.  In  1901  agriculture  employed  7910  workers 
and  domestic  service  required  4935  persons  of  whom 
4053  were  women.  Building  required  2158  hands, 
besides  workers  in  quarries  1412,  213  men  preparing 
wood,  and  90  brick  makers.  The  latter  number  includes 
tile  makers.  Metal  workers  numbered  1 182,  and  workers 
in  precious  metals  115. 

The  textile  industries  employed  885  men  and  1065 
women  :  802  men  and  1488  women  were  engaged  in 

s  o     O 

making  into  dress  these  as  well  as  imported  goods,  while 
239  drapers  sold  them.  Commerce  connected  with  this 
and  other  industries  was  carried  on  by  585  persons  who 
required  2128  carriers  and  transport  agents.  Skinners 
and  tanners  numbered  116  ;  stationers  and  other  workers 
with  paper  were  192  ;  workers  in  chemicals  numbered 
75,  and  there  were  1637  general  dealers.  No  fewer  than 
1990  men  and  women  were  engaged  catering  for  the 
others  ;  and  1220  professional  men  and  women — teachers, 
doctors,  lawyers  etc.,  and  359  public  servants  looked  after 


the  education,  health,  and  peace  of  the  community.  Over 
5000  males  and  20,000  females  of  working  age  had  no 
specified  employment. 

The  great  sales  of  sheep  and  cattle  at  Dumfries, 
Annan,  Lockerbie,  Langholm  and  Thornhill,  and  the 
disposal  of  the  various  cereals,  are  productive  of  work  and 
wealth.  Nurseries  for  trees,  shrubs,  and  flowers  around 
Dumfries  and  Annan  afford  labour  for  many  hands.  The 
shire  is  not  an  industrial  and  manufacturing  centre,  al- 
though certain  industries  continue  to  thrive  in  it.  The 
extensive  sandstone  quarries  of  Gatelawbridge,  Closeburn, 
Locharbriggs,  Annanlea,  Cove,  Corncockle,  Corsehill  and 
others,  which  formerly  had  a  large  export  trade,  have 
recently  decreased  their  output ;  and  the  limestone 
quarries  at  Closeburn,  Barjarg  and  Kelhead  have  not 
been  so  active  as  formerly.  The  mining  industry  in 
Kirkconnel  is  increasing.  Lead  working  in  Wanlockhead 
still  flourishes. 

A  new  industry  has  been  recently  started  on  Ironhirst 
Moss,  part  of  the  great  Lochar  Moss  belt,  for  the  utilisation 
of  the  peat,  which  is  converted  into  compressed  peat  blocks 
and  into  sulphate  of  ammonia,  under  new  processes. 

Large  numbers  of  the  inhabitants  of  Dumfries  town 
are  engaged  in  various  mills  and  works  on  both  sides  of 
the  river,  wherein  cereals  are  ground,  and  yarns  spun  and 
woven  into  tweeds,  gloves,  hosiery  and  other  articles  for 
wearing.  Dumfries  tweeds,  gloves,  and  silk  underclothing 
have  a  high  reputation  in  the  market,  and  demand  for  them 
is  on  the  increase.  Tan  works  still  exist.  Forges  for 
the  production  of  agricultural  implements  and  engineering 


shops  employ  considerable  numbers  of  mechanics.  To 
carriage  building,  for  which  the  town  was  well  known, 
motor-building  has  been  added ;  while  the  making  of 
jams  and  confectionery,  dyeing  and  laundrying  give 
employment  to  many  hands.  Being  the  chief  emporium 
for  a  large  agricultural  area,  Dumfries  is  busy  in  the 
transaction  of  all  kinds  of  commerce,  and  is  abundantly 
supplied  with  merchants  in  places  of  business  supplying 
the  needs  of  a  practical  community.  The  shipping 
industry  in  the  Nith  has  become  attenuated. 

Annan,  near  the  centre  of  a  large  agricultural  district, 
is  similarly  busy,  having  engineering  works,  the  famous 
mills  for  making  "  Provost  Oats,"  some  shipping  trade, 
distilling  "  Johnie  Walker "  whiskey  in  the  Annandale 
distillery,  brickworks,  nurseries,  fisheries,  and  cattle 

In  Eaglesfield  village  70  persons  find  employment  in 
tailoring.  Langholm  is  noted  for  its  six  tweed-mills, 
wherein  660  male  and  female  workers  are  engaged.  A 
tannery  employs  30  hands.  Glen  Tarras  Distillery  and 
Langholm  Distillery,  at  present  not  working,  afforded 
labour  for  others  in  Langholm. 

At  Sanquhar,  in  place  of  the  thriving  weaving  industry 
which  has  disappeared,  there  are  terra-cotta  brick  working, 
brick  and  tile  making,  coal-mining,  a  little  sandstone 
quarrying  and  laundry  work — all,  however,  on  an  incon- 
siderable scale. 

A  most  important  industry  has  sprung  up  in  recent 
years  in  Thornhill — the  bacon  factory,  giving  employ- 
ment to  50  hands.  The  latest  modern  plant  has  been  set 


down  to  overtake  the  conversion  of  above  15,000  pigs  per 
annum  into  bacon,  sausages,  cooked  hams,  and  all  kinds 
of  table  delicacies  such  as  glass-meats,  braised  tongues, 
pork-pies  and  other  tid-bits.  Under  steam  pressure  the 
bones  are  made  to  yield  edible  fat,  and  the  residuum  is 
used  for  manure.  There  is  also  a  bacon  curing  establish- 
ment in  Sanquhar. 

The  amount  of  printing  done  within  the  shire  is  very 
considerable  in  the  production  of  books,  the  local  news- 
papers, and  in  the  execution  of  contracts  from  without. 

Large  numbers  of  men  and  boys  are  employed  in  the 
extensive  woodlands  of  the  county,  both  planting  and 
cutting  down  the  ripened  trees.  Several  estate  saw-mills 
are  employed  for  local  requirements,  but  large  quantities 
of  hard  and  soft  timber  are  exported  to  mining  centres 
and  to  districts  manufacturing  articles  out  of  wood. 

In  1897  t^le  Charity  Organisation  Society  of  Glasgow 
leased  Mid  Locharwoods,  a  farm  of  nearly  500  acres  in 
Ruthwell  parish,  as  a  labour  colony  for  providing  work 
for  the  destitute  unemployed,  and  for  the  reclaiming  of 
Lochar  Moss.  The  number  of  employees  fluctuates. 
The  directors  have  recently  purchased  the  farm. 

14.     Mines  and  Minerals. 

Coal,  lead  ore,  zinc  ore,  silver,  limestone,  igneous 
rocks  and  clay  are  mined  and  quarried  in  the  county. 
The  output,  however,  is  limited.  Coal  is  worked  in 
two  areas  only — in  Upper  Nithsdale  at  Sanquhar  and 


Kirkconnel,  and  in  Canonbie  at  the  Old  Colliery  and 
Blinkbonny.  The  Sanquhar-Kirkconnel  coalfield  (which, 
as  the  chapter  on  Geology  indicates,  is  a  continuation  of 
the  Ayrshire  field)  with  its  three  pits  employs  (1911)  about 
850  men  and  boys,  raising  about  300,000  tons  of  coal 
annually.  A  recent  return  (1907)  showed  an  output  of 
245,624  tons,  valued  at  £99,273,  or  85.  id.  per  ton, 
raised  by  437  hands  under  ground  and  121  above,  in  all 
558.  The  recent  sinking  of  new  shafts  in  Kirkconnel 
has  increased  these  numbers.  The  latest  return  (1910) 
shows  an  output  of  279,912  tons  of  coal,  of  value  £87,473, 
or  6s.  3^.  per  ton,  raised  by  811  hands  of  whom  676  were 
employed  in  Dumfriesshire.  The  return  includes  the 
work  of  135  men  in  the  small  Argyll  coalfield. 

The  Canonbie  coalfield  is  small  but  rich,  and  pro- 
duces 18,000  tons  annually,  105  men  and  boys  finding 
employment  in  it. 

Only  one  metalliferous  mine  is  at  work  in  the  county, 
that  at  Wanlockhead,  belonging  to  the  Duke  of  Buccleuch 
and  adjoining  the  well-known  mines  at  Leadhill.  Here 

1 06  persons  are  employed  above  ground  and  47  below. 
The   output  for   1909   was   1783   tons  of  lead   ore   and 

107  tons    of    zinc    ore.       The    output    for    1910    was 
2500  tons  of  lead  ore,  and  the  number  of  men  employed 
250.     One  hundred  years  ago  118  men  were  employed, 
producing  874  tons  of  lead,  worth  £5000. 

Silver  to  the  extent  of  12,500  ounces  was  extracted  in 
1910:  in  1909,  8915  ounces.  The  total  value  of  the 
dressed  lead  ore  and  silver  in  1909  was  £22,000. 

An  antimony  mine  was  opened  in  1 760  at  Glendinning, 


Westerkirk,  and  before  1798  had  produced  100  tons  of  the 
regulus  of  antimony  worth  £8400.  Working  stopped 
about  20  years  ago. 

There  are  22  quarries  employing  224  inside  and 
362  outside,  and  their  output  is  as  follows  :  igneous  rock, 
8156;  clay,  marl,  brick-earth,  shale,  7781;  granite, 
2692;  limestone,  17,096;  sandstone,  90,104;  in  all 
125,829  tons.  The  values  of  these  products  were : 
igneous  rock,  including  granite,  £1274;  clay,  £341; 
limestone,  £1109;  sandstone,  £38,868.  This  shows 
a  considerable  decrease  from  the  output  of  former  years. 
The  new-red-sandstone  quarries  of  the  county  are  famous 
for  stone  suitable  and  easily  wrought  for  building  purposes 
and  monuments  locally,  and  in  request  in  cities  on  account 
of  weathering  qualities  when  in  contact  with  smoke  and 
other  deleterious  elements  in  the  atmosphere.  The  most 
notable  of  these  quarries  are  Closeburn,  Gatelawbridge, 
Locharbriggs,  Corsehill,  Cove  and  Corncockle. 

The  extensive  new-red-sandstone  quarries  in  Closeburn 
parish,  which  in  1903  produced  68,000  tons  of  excellent 
building  stone,  suitable  for  sculpture  with  a  fine  finish, 
and  employed  250  men,  in  1910  put  out  21,000  tons  at 
the  hands  of  60  men.  The  extensive  lime  quarries  at 
Kelhead,  Cummertrees,  at  present  employ  19  men  with 
an  output  of  about  4000  tons  of  lime. 

No  coal  is  exported  by  ship  from  Dumfriesshire,  but 
4098  tons  of  coke  are  imported  coastwise.  6094  tons 
of  coke  of  the  value  of  £3253  are  manufactured  in  the 


15.     Fisheries. 

The  Solway  Firth  from  time  immemorial  has  been 
famous  for  its  fish,  which  remunerated  the  monks  of 
Melrose  and  of  Holme  Cultram,  and  graced  the  royal 
table  from  the  time  of  the  Bruce  onward.  The  Solway 
fisheries  have  often  occupied  the  attention  of  the  legislature 
and  High  Courts,  while  several  Royal  Commissions  have 
investigated  the  area,  statutes,  fish,  nets,  and  other  matters 
relative  to  the  Solway. 

There  are  two  distinct  classes  of  fishing  in  Solway — 
the  white  and  the  red  (or  salmon).  The  white  fish  taken 
are  cod,  flounders,  herring  ;  the  red  are  salmon,  trout, 
herling,  sparling,  and  shrimps.  The  interests  of  the  two 
classes  of  fishers  often  conflict  on  account  of  the  ancient 
peculiar  privilege  of  the  fishers  of  white  fish,  who,  by  an 
Act  of  Queen  Mary,  were  permitted  to  use  fixed  engines 
— a  custom  illegal  elsewhere  and  on  the  English  side  of 
the  Firth. 

The  nets  used  locally  are  of  peculiar  construction. 
"  Paidle "  nets,  used  for  catching  white  fish,  are  fixed 
engines  similar  to  salmon-,  stake-,  and  bag-nets,  but  on  a 
smaller  scale.  In  the  Annan  fishery  district  there  are 
10  "white  fish  nets,"  haying  24  pockets:  in  the  Firth 
district  66  with  66  pockets.  Halve-  or  haaf-nets  are  a 
kind  of  bag-net,  14  feet  long,  with  three  perpendicular 
rods  under  them,  one  at  each  end,  and  one  in  the  middle, 
to  keep  down  the  net.  These  nets  are  held  by  men  in 
the  current  of  the  ebbing  or  flowing  tide.  The  "  halvers," 
or  fishers  of  Annan,  claim  the  right  to  use  these  under  a 

H.  D.  6 


charter  granted  in  1538.  "Poke-nets"  are  about  a  yard 
square  at  the  mouth  in  form  of  an  open  bag,  and  are 
suspended  between  stakes  from  6  to  7  feet  long,  which 
are  fixed  about  half-way  into  the  sand  at  a  distance  of 
4  feet  from  each  other.  "Stake-"  or  "trap-nets," 
invented  by  John  Little  of  Newbie,  are  nets  of  one  or 
more  compartments,  enclosed  with  netting,  supported  by 
stakes,  from  5  to  15  feet  high  or  upwards,  driven  into  the 
sand  or  beach,  and  with  netting  for  their  roof.  They 
have  doors  which  open  with  the  inflowing  tide  and  are 
effectually  closed  by  the  returning  current.  Two  long 
leaders  guide  the  fish  into  these  traps.  The  Special 
Commissioners  of  the  Solway  in  1881  granted  to  four 
maritime  proprietors  and  to  the  Burgh  of  Annan  the 
privilege  of  using  stake-,  fly-,  and  bag-nets  to  the  number 
of  34  engines  and  126  pockets.  Poke-nets  to  the  number 
of  600  "  clouts  "  and  2200  pockets  were  allowed  to  three 
maritime  proprietors  and  to  the  Burgh  of  Annan. 

"  VVhammelling "  is  a  method  of  fishing  on  the 
Solway  introduced  in  1855  by  two  fishermen  named 
Woodman,  whereby  fish  are  caught  in  a  long  net,  600  to 
800  yards  long.  One  end  of  the  net,  weighted  on  the 
under  side  and  attached  to  a  loaded  pole  which  remains 
upright,  is  thrown  from  the  stern  of  a  boat  moving  across 
the  tide  and  paying  out  all  the  net  till  it  extends  across 
the  channel.  The  upper  part  of  the  net  floats  free  with 
the  tide,  and  in  the  meshes  of  the  net  the  fish  are  caught. 
About  50  boats  leave  Seafield,  Annan,  and  other  places 
to  "  whammle  "  for  salmon,  "  draw  "  for  trout,  "  trawl  " 
for  shrimps,  and  "  beam-trawl  "  for  flat  fish. 


Another  method  of  fishing  practised  at  Lochmaben  on 
the  Annan  is  called  "  cross-line-fishing."  The  line  is 
stretched  between  two  fishers,  one  on  each  bank  ;  from 
the  line  drop  several  smaller  baited  lines  called  "  eeks." 

In  1840,  in  the  Dumfries  and  Stranraer  district, 
84  boats  and  430  fishers  were  employed;  and  1665 
barrels  of  herring  were  cured.  In  1901  only  169  men 
and  i  woman  were  registered  deep-sea  fishers.  The 
Fishery  Return  (1910)  shows  that  at  present  there  exists 
at  Carsethorn  I  boat  under  30  feet  and  over  18  feet, 
employing  18  fishermen  and  boys;  at  Caerlaverock 
20  fishermen  and  boys;  at  Powfoot  13;  at  Annan 
6  boats  over  18  feet  and  10  tons,  and  I  under  18  feet 
of  I  ton.  No  new  boat  was  constructed  in  the  district 
in  1909. 

The  quantity  of  fish,  especially  flounders,  taken 
between  Kirkcudbright  and  Powfoot,  was  1084  cwts., 
valued  at  £604  ;  and  mussels  £i%J>  At  Annan  2 1 08  cwts., 
valued  at  £2717,  were  taken  ;  and  ^2704  were  obtained 
for  shell-fish,  being  an  increase  of  .£1000  on  this  fishing. 
There  was  a  decrease  of  shrimps,  however.  The  weight 
of  fish  borne  by  rail  was  from  Annan  265  tons,  Dumfries 
n,  Dornock  6,  Cummertrees  3 — in  all  285  tons.  Forty 
tons  left  Kirkcudbright.  Half  the  income  of  the  Annan 
fishermen  was  from  shrimps  :  there  was  a  short  catch  of 
lobsters.  Crabs  and  oysters  increase,  and  half  the  value 
of  shell-fish  is  from  oysters. 

The  salmon  fisheries  for  the  Solway  district  are  valued 
as  follows:  Annan  ^2917,  Dee  (Solway)  £1231,  Nith 
.£506.  These  sums  show  a  decrease  on  former  years. 



For  the  salmon,  which  ascends  to  the  extreme  limits  of  the 
county,  the  close  time  for  netting  is  from  loth  September 
to  24th  February.  The  close  time  for  angling  is  from 
1 3th  November  to  24th  February.  In  Hoddom  Waters 
salmon  are  caught  with  stake-nets  and  poke-nets.  In 
Annan  there  are  fixed  engines,  but  no  sweep-nets,  while 
rod  and  line  are  in  use.  In  the  Newbie  fishings  the  stake- 
net  is  used.  In  the  Nith  fixed  engines,  sweep-net,  rod 
and  line  are  used.  Sea-trout  appears  in  March,  and  grilse 
early  in  June  in  the  Annan  and  the  Nith.  The  heaviest 
salmon  taken  in  Annan  in  1910  was  38  Ibs.,  and  in  Nith 
30  Ibs. 

Few  counties  possess  such  facilities  as  Dumfriesshire 
for  angling,  and  at  small  cost.  Annan  river  contains 
salmon,  trout,  pike,  perch,  roach,  chub,  eel,  sea-trout, 
grilse,  and  herling ;  Nith,  salmon,  sea-trout,  grayling,  and 
trout ;  Esk,  salmon,  grilse,  herling,  sea-trout,  and  trout ; 
the  Cairn,  salmon,  sea-trout,  and  yellow  trout.  The 
streams  all  have  river-trout,  some  have  sea-trout  and 
salmon.  Keen  fishers  abound,  and  their  interests  are  looked 
after  by  the  following  associations  :  Dumfries  and  Max- 
welltown  Angling  Association,  Dumfries  and  Galloway 
Angling  Promotion  and  Protection  Club,  Esk  and  Liddel 
Fisheries  Association,  Mid  Nithsdale  Angling  Association, 
Upper  Nithsdale  Angling  Association. 


16.     Shipping  and  Trade. 

At  the  beginning  of  the  nineteenth  century  Dumfries 
and  Annan  were  important  sea-ports,  doing  a  large  home 
and  foreign  trade.  To-day  that  commerce  is  at  a  mini- 
mum as  far  as  water-ways  are  concerned.  In  1809  ships 
registered  at  the  Port  of  Dumfries,  that  is  from  Gretna  to 
Kirkcudbright,  numbered  inward  bound  493,  with  tonnage 
18,985,  and  men  802.  In  1835  there  were  192  ships 
with  11,798  tonnage  and  779  men.  In  1894  there  was 
a  temporary  revival  of  import  and  export  trade  ;  but  in 
1909  the  ships  recorded  are  six  British  inward  with 
641  tons,  and  three  foreign  of  506,  together  with 
15  sailing-ships  with  837  tons,  and  two  steam-ships  of 
58  tons  registered.  The  total  outwards  was  nil. 

Both  Dumfries  and  Annan  formerly  had  a  large 
foreign  trade  with  America  and  the  Continent.  A 
writer  in  1811  states  that  the  imports  of  Annan  were 
coal,  lime,  slate,  timber,  herrings,  salt,  West  India 
produce  and  English  goods  discharged  from  200  vessels, 
while  40  vessels  exported  grain,  malt,  potatoes,  bacon, 
freestone  and  wood.  Sixteen  vessels  averaging  40  tons 
each  belonged  to  Annan.  Formerly  Annan  had  a  large 
import  wine-trade,  while  ship-building  and  rope-making 
were  successful  industries. 

Relying  on  this  large  and  increasing  trade,  the 
authorities  at  much  expense,  under  Act  of  Parliament, 
had  the  navigation  of  the  Nith  improved  and  three  good 
quays  provided  within  six  miles  of  Dumfries,  where 


80  vessels  belonging  to  the  local  port  loaded  and  discharged 
in  1841.  A  steam-boat  also  plied  regularly  from  Glencaple 
to  Liverpool  with  passengers,  bestial,  and  goods.  Glencaple 
in  1840  boasted  of  a  ship-building  yard  where  two  vessels 
of  over  60  tons  burden  were  built  annually.  But  the 
advent  of  the  railroad  destroyed  all  this  local  business, 
timber,  goods  and  cattle  being  transferred  to  the  railway  ; 
while  a  new  wet  dock  at  Silloth  was  taken  advantage  of 
by  ship-masters. 

17.     History  of  the  County. 

The  history  of  this  region  is  a  narrative  of  strife, 
battery  and  bloodshed.  The  marvel  is  that  any  residue 
of  life  remained  in  that  gory  arena.  Historical  memorials 
— the  camps  at  Birrens,  Birrenswark,  and  other  places, 
the  inscribed  stones  found  in  these  camps — remain  to 
prove  the  Roman  conquest.  On  the  withdrawal  of  the 
Romans  a  mist  falls  upon  the  doings  of  the  warring  tribes, 
Selgovae  and  Novantae  north  of  the  Solway,  and  the 
Brigantes  south  of  it.  The  district  again  emerges  into 
recorded  fame  when,  in  573,  Rydderch  Hael,  Christian 
King  of  Strathclyde,  defeated  the  pagan  Welshman, 
Gwenddoleu,  at  Arderydd  on  the  English  bank  of  the 

At  Dawstone,  in  603,  King  Aidan  was  defeated  by 
Ethelfrid.  Successive  religious  waves  passed  over  this 
region.  In  the  fifth  century  Ninian  and  his  British 
school  planted  the  cross  here.  In  the  sixth  century 



St  Mungo  (Kentigern),  still  remembered  in  a  parish  of 
that  name,  fixed  his  see  in  Hoddom  ;  and  a  century  later 
St  Cuthbert,  whose  name  is  preserved  in  local  place- 
names,  confirmed  the  evangelisation  of  Cumbria,  then 
and  long  afterwards  a  part  of  England,  which  the  Scoto- 

Statuette  of  Brigantia,  found  at  Birrens 

Irish  missionaries  also  visited.  The  incidents  of  the  racial 
wars  between  Picts,  Britons,  Gaels,  and  Norsemen  are 
very  sparsely  recorded.  Arthurian  legends  are  by  some 
associated  with  the  Head  of  the  "  Wood  of  Celydon  "  in 


Of  the  intrusion  of  the  English  into  Strathclyde, 
among  the  Iro-Scottish  conquerors  there,  of  the  descent 
of  Norse  vikings,  Iro-Northmen  (Dubhgalls),  and  the 
ultimate  suffusion  of  Anglo-Saxons,  Danes  and  North- 
men among  the  blended  British  and  Gaelic  population, 
with  the  result  in  the  rise  of  the  English  speaking  com- 
munity, we  have  little  definite  information.  Halfdan,  the 
Dane,  overran  this  territory  in  875,  which  the  Northmen 
made  into  a  pleasant  colony  with  Tinwald  (Thingvellir) 
for  their  local  capital.  The  English  King,  Athelstan,  in 
937  inflicted  a  terrible  defeat  upon  Anlaf,  King  of  Ireland, 
and  a  strong  combination  of  Scots,  Welsh,  and  Irish, 
at  Brunanburh.  Five  Kings,  seven  Jarls,  a  son  of 
Constantine,  and  two  brothers  of  Athelstan  bit  the  dust 
there.  According  to  one  competent  authority,  this 
victory  was  won  near  Birrenswark.  The  magnificent 
rune-inscribed  High  Cross  at  Ruthwell,  if  not  a  witness 
of  that  battle  and  sea-flight,  may  have  been  its  piously 
founded  memorial.  In  945  King  Edmund  granted 
Cumbria  to  Malcolm,  King  of  Scotland. 

William  the  Conqueror's  sequestration  and  displace- 
ment of  the  Saxon  lords  by  Norman  soldiers  brought  the 
families  of  Brus,  Jardihe,  Comyn,  Herries,  Johnston,  and 
others  into  contiguity  with  the  Borders.  The  sons  of 
the  soil,  if  local  traditions  are  trustworthy,  were  Rorys, 
Welshes,  MacMaths,  Morras,  Karls,  Crechtons,  Cruthers, 
Graems,  Griers,  Ferguses,  Eggers,  Irvines,  and  others 
with  Celtic  names.  In  1107  King  Edgar  gave  Edmund's 
troublesome  gift  to  the  gallant  Prince  David,  who,  with 
the  help  of  his  Anglo-Norman  associates,  ruled  it  till  his 


death.  For  him  the  Scottish  Borderers  under  Prince  Henry 
fought  at  Northallerton  in  1138.  David  gave  the  See 
of  Glasgow  jurisdiction  over  the  shire  and  over  part  of 
Galloway.  When  Malcolm  the  Maiden  ceded  Carlisle 
to  Henry  II,  the  national  boundary  was  shifted  to  the 
Esk.  The  great  ford  was  at  Sulewath,  that  is  sul-  or  sol- 
vad — the  mud-ford.  Hence  arose  the  name  Solway  Firth, 
or  Scotiswath  or  Scotwade  (vadum  Stoticum\  which  was 
also  known  as  Tracbt  Romra,  or  the  Shore  of  the  Strong 
Tide.  The  land  between  the  Esk  and  the  Sark  became 
debateable,  and  Solway  (more  properly  Sollome  or  Solane) 
Moss  was  made  English  when  the  boundary  was  fixed  at 
the  Sark  in  1552. 

The  thirteenth  century  was  noted  for  the  munificent 
works  of  Dervorgilla,  widow  of  John  Baliol,  who  founded 
a  monastery  for  Grey  Friars  in  Dumfries.  In  the 
struggle  with  England,  1286-1371,  the  Dumfriesians 
had  a  share,  their  leaders  oscillating  in  their  allegiance 
between  the  Kings,  and  the  people  bleeding  for  both  sides. 
Traditions  of  Wallace  are  still  vividly  narrated  in  folk- 
story,  which  tells  how  he  took  the  castles  of  Enoch  and 
Tibbers,  and  spilled  Moreland's  blood  at  "  The  Sax 
Corses "  in  Kirkmichael.  So  is  the  story  of  Bruce's 
dispatch  of  Comyn  when  Kirkpatrick  did  "  mak  siccar  " 
his  bloody  work  before  the  altar  of  the  Grey  Friars  in 
Dumfries.  King  Edward  I  besieged  and  took  Caerlave- 
rock  Castle  in  1300,  returned  to  England,  and  died 
near  Burgh-by-Sands  as  he  was  on  his  way  to  desolate 
Dumfriesshire  again.  Many  other  Kings,  down  to  the 
time  of  King  James  VI,  visited  Dumfries  bringing  peace. 


But  the  part  and  lot  of  the  Borderer  was  war,  and 
blood  was  ever  in  his  wine  cup.  Border  history  largely 
turns  round  the  names  of  three  influential  families — the 
Maxwells,  the  Douglases,  and  the  Johnstones.  Of  the 
supersession  of  the  Dunegal  family  of  Nithsdale,  and  of 
the  Edgars,  their  descendants,  in  favour  of  the  March 
family  and  of  the  Douglases  of  Morton  and  Drumlanrig, 
we  have  charter  evidence  back  to  the  fourteenth  century. 

When  the  chief  of  the  Brus  family  ascended  the 
Scottish  throne,  another  very  masterful  Border  chief, 
Maxwell,  had  long  established  himself  at  Caerlaverock, 
and  his  family  and  vassals  played  an  important  part  till 
they  were  overshadowed  by  the  Douglases,  Lords  of 
Galloway,  the  Knights  of  Drumlanrig,  and  the  Dukes 
of  Queensberry,  and  ousted  from  places  of  honour  and 
office  by  Johnstones  and  Crichtons.  About  1263  we  find 
Sir  Aymer  de  Maxwell  Sheriff  of  Dumfries,  and  in  1409 
a  Maxwell  becomes  Steward  of  Annandale,  and  their 
descendants  Wardens  of  the  West  Marches.  There  is 
not  a  little  in  the  boast  of  the  Johnstones  : 

"Within  the  bounds  of  Annandale,  the  gentle  Johnstones  ride, 
They  have  been  there  a  thousand  years,  and  a  thousand  years 
they'll  bide." 

The  gallant  Sir  William  Douglas,  who  married  Egidia, 
daughter  of  Robert  II,  in  1387,  with  her  obtained  territory 
in  Nithsdale.  Whenever 

"The  doughty  Douglas  boun'  him  ride 
Into  England  to  make  a  prey," 

we    find    the    men    of   Dumfries    and    Galloway   at    his 


back.  Archibald  the  Grim,  son  of  "Good  Sir  James," 
ruled  the  Marches  from  Thrieve  Castle,  and  was  frequently 
on  the  war-path,  as  later  (1400)  his  son  Archibald,  Warden 
of  the  Marches,  was  against  the  Earl  of  March  and 
Hotspur  Percy.  This  Douglas  and  Percy  feud  was 

A  few  of  the  more  striking  incidents  in  Border  warfare 
may  be  mentioned.  In  1297  Sir  Robert  Clifford  slew 
over  300  Annandale  men  at  Battlefield  on  Annan  Moor, 
and  on  a  second  raid  in  1298  burnt  Annan.  In  1332 
Edward  Baliol  was  nearly  captured  in  a  fight  at  Annan. 
In  March,  1333,  Sir  Antony  Lucy  defeated  and  captured 
the  Knight  of  Liddesdale  at  the  Battle  of  Dornock.  The 
Scots  had  their  revenge  when,  on  23rd  October,  1448, 
Douglas,  Earl  of  Ormond,  with  4000  Scots  met  Percy 
with  6000  English  at  Clochmabenstane,  and  in  this  battle 
of  the  Sark  routed  the  English,  captured  Percy,  and  slew 
2000  of  the  foe  with  a  loss  of  600  men.  Dumfries  was 
burned  in  1415,  and  again  in  1449. 

Between  the  Crown  and  the  Douglases  relations  had 
long  been  strained,  and  at  last  were  broken  off.  The 
King  marched  against  the  Earl,  who  fled  to  England, 
leaving  his  fiery  brothers  to  fight  it  out  and  meet  defeat 
at  the  hands  of  another  Douglas,  Angus,  at  Arkinholm, 
Langholm,  on  May  Day,  1455.  Nearly  thirty  years 
afterwards  the  renegade  Douglas  and  Albany,  with  500 
horse,  made  a  raid  into  Scotland,  and  in  a  skirmish  with 
the  Maxwells,  Crichtons,  Charterises,  and  other  Border 
families,  were  captured  at  Kirtlebank  in  July,  1484. 
Merkland  Cross  marks  the  site  where  the  Master  of 


Maxwell  fell  after  this  fight,  called  the  battle  of  Kirk- 
connel  and  the  battle  of  Lochmaben.  This  last  Earl  was 
sentenced  to  seclusion  in  Lindores  Abbey.  The  Maxwells 
of  Caerlaverock  were  advanced  and  became  Wardens  of 
the  Marches  and  Stewards  of  Annandale. 

During  the  wars  with  England  in  the  sixteenth 
century  the  shire  was  frequently  devastated.  Many 
Dumfriesians  fell  at  Flodden.  Lord  Dacre  thereafter 
made  Eskdale  and  Annandale  into  a  waste.  Recrimina- 
tions with  fire  and  sword  followed  on  both  sides  of  the 
Border.  Rival  families  were  at  feud  as  well.  In  1529 
James  V  marched  into  the  county  with  8000  men  to 
curb  the  Border  chiefs,  and  hanged  Johnie  Armstrong 
and  his  freebooters  at  Carlenrig.  In  1542,  in  revenge  for 
a  foray  of  the  English,  repelled  by  the  Johnstones  and 
others,  James  V  led  a  force  of  10,000  men  to  the  Borders. 
From  Birrenswark  Hill,  it  is  said,  he  saw  his  army  march 
across  the  frontier  to  meet  a  disgraceful  defeat  at  Solway 
Moss,  on  24th  November,  1542.  The  King  went  home 
from  Caerlaverock  Castle  to  die  of  a  broken  heart. 
Douglas  of  Drumlanrig,  and  the  Carlyles  of  Brydekirk, 
alone  of  the  southern  Scots,  would  not  submit  to  English 
domination  ;  and  Drumlanrig  was  appointed  the  Warden. 
In  1547  Wharton,  the  English  Warden,  laid  low  the 
castle,  steeple,  and  town  of  Annan  as  "a  very  noisome 
neighbourhood  to  England." 

The  Reformation  principles,  preached  in  the  south- 
west by  Knox,  were  welcomed  by  the  majority  in  the 
shire,  but  not  by  the  Maxwells.  Queen  Mary  visited  the 
shire  several  times  and  gathered  a  strong  party  for  her 


cause  ;  but  the  Regent,  in  turn,  came  and  coerced  them 
into  submission  to  the  protestant  government.  Various 
political  parties  united  to  oppose  the  English  forces  under 
Scrope  and  Sussex  when,  in  1570,  they  crossed  the  Borders 
and  laid  waste  Annan,  Dumfries,  and  the  country  around 
with  fire  and  sword. 

The  feud  between  the  Maxwells  and  the  Johnstones 
had  a  pitiful  ending  when  Lord  Maxwell,  Warden  of  the 
Marches,  was  defeated  and  killed  at  Dryfe  Sands  on 
6th  December,  1593,  by  the  Laird  of  Johnstone  and  his 
followers,  whom  he  had  been  authorised  to  apprehend. 
In  1608  Sir  James  Johnstone,  now  the  Warden,  met 
Maxwell,  the  son  of  the  slain  Warden,  at  Tinwald  in 
a  conference  for  the  purpose  of  ending  the  feud  peaceably. 
It  ended  differently.  Johnstone  was  shot  by  Maxwell, 
who  fled  to  the  Continent.  On  his  return  he  was 
captured  and  executed  in  Edinburgh  in  1613  for  high 
treason  and  for  slaying  the  Warden  of  the  Marches. 
James  VI  several  times  visited  Dumfries,  and  on  the 
occasion  of  his  last  visit,  in  August,  1617,  presented  a 
shooting  trophy  to  the  Seven  Incorporated  Trades,  called 
The  Siller  Gun.  It  was  last  competed  for  in  1901. 

In  the  troubles  consequent  upon  the  autocratic  conduct 
of  Charles  I,  and  the  intrusion  of  Episcopacy,  the  Low- 
lands were  much  concerned.  The  Covenant  was  generally 
subscribed  in  1638.  Caerlaverock,  held  for  the  King, 
was  taken  by  the  Covenanters  in  1640.  On  the  accession 
of  Charles  II  the  south-west  counties  were  so  cruelly 
treated  by  the  military  that  in  1666  the  men  of  the 
Glenkens  rose  in  Dairy,  marched  to  Dumfries,  seized 


Sir  James  Turner,  the  Commander,  and  marched  away 
with  him  as  a  hostage  to  Edinburgh  to  appeal  for  justice. 
The  royal  forces,  under  Dalyell,  met  them  at  Rullion 
Green,  defeated  them,  and  captured  many  for  execution 
and  banishment.  Colonel  John  Graham,  of  Claverhouse, 
was  appointed  depute  sheriff  of  the  county  in  1679  and 

Caerlaverock  Castle 

later  a  justiciary  judge,  and  hunted  the  Covenanters  down. 
Many  natives  of  the  shire  were  shot,  executed  after  trial, 
and  exiled  on  account  of  adherence  to  the  Covenants. 
At  the  Cross  of  Sanquhar  the  Cameronians  publicly  dis- 
owned Charles  II  in  1680,  and  James  VII  in  1685. 

The  Union  of  the  Parliaments  was  not  acceptable  to 


all  in  the  southern  counties  of  Scotland,  and  the  Articles 
of  the  Union  were  publicly  burnt  at  the  Cross  of  Dumfries 
by  disaffected  patriots.  The  affair  of  the  Old  Pretender 
in  1715  affected  only  the  fifth  Earl  of  Nithsdale,  who  was 
taken  at  Preston,  and  narrowly  escaped  execution  through 
an  escape  successfully  carried  out  by  his  gallant  wife. 
"Bonnie  Prince  Charlie"  in  1745  in  his  march  to  and 
from  England  passed  through  the  county,  and  from  the 
burgh  of  Dumfries  exacted  a  large  sum  of  money,  as  well 
as  many  pairs  of  shoes  for  his  soldiery. 

The  next  important  events  are  the  advent  to  Ellisland 
in  1788  of  Robert  Burns,  and  of  his  subsequent  residence 
and  death  in  Dumfries  in  1796.  In  1832  cholera  ravaged 
the  shire,  and  420  persons  succumbed  in  Dumfries.  In 
1843  tne  Church  of  Scotland  was  dismembered  ;  and  nine 
of  the  parish  ministers  and  three  ministers  of  unendowed 
churches,  with  a  large  following,  threw  in  their  lot  with 
the  Free  Church. 

18.     Antiquities —  Prehistoric,    Roman, 
Celtic,  Anglo=Saxon. 

Many  relics  found  in  Dumfriesshire  illustrate  the 
various  stages  of  development  through  which  the  in- 
habitants passed  since 

"  Wild  in  wood  the  noble   savage  ran." 

The   nature  of  the  rocks   did   not  afford   many  natural 
shelters  for  primitive  man,  and  consequently  the  "finds" 


which  tell  of  the  pagans  who  used  wooden  and  bone 
implements,  then  rough  and  polished  stone  tools,  and 
last  of  all  metallic  weapons,  instruments,  and  ornaments, 
are  found  in  fields,  mosses,  and  cairns.  The  constant 
turning  over  of  the  soil  has  made  them  less  numerous 
than  in  other  districts.  Many  sites  of  primitive  villages, 
earth-forts,  camps,  crannogs,  burial  cists,  and  other  remains 
still  unexplored  may  prove  fruitful  to  the  antiquarian. 
Canoes,  dug  out  of  single  trees,  have  been  found  in 
Closeburn  Castle  Loch,  Lochar  Moss,  and  Friars  Carse 
Loch;  and  in  1911  two  small  canoes  were  found  at 
Lochmaben.  A  group  of  houses,  called  "weems,"  ex- 
cavated by  primitive  folk,  is  seen  above  The  Deil's  Dyke, 
on  Townhead  farm  in  Closeburn ;  and  in  them  burnt 
hearth-stones,  calcined  iron,  and  a  whorl  were  found. 

Nearly  every  prominent  eminence  in  the  county  has 
traces  of  defensive  works,  some  having  concentric  rings 
of  ditches,  as  at  Tynron  Dun  (946  feet).  Within  the 
shire  there  are  remains  of  249  such  forts,  more  than  one 
half  being  in  Annandale.  Of  these  14  are  rectangular, 
eight  probably  rectangular,  and  206  curvilinear;  and  21 
regular  motes  are  preserved.  Remains  of  a  vitrified  fort 
were  found  near  Pinzarie,  Tynron.  On  account  of  the 
scarcity  of  lakes,  crannogs  are  few ;  but  those  on  two 
islands  in  Loch  Urr,  although  of  a  later  type,  show  two 
defensive  submerged  gangways.  In  Lochmaben  Castle 
Loch  submerged  structures  exist,  and  in  Loch  Skene  a 
small  islet  has  the  appearance  of  a  crannog. 

Cairns  are  very  numerous.  Those  on  the  farm  of 
Auchencairn,  Closeburn,  of  immense  size,  and  associated 


with  the  names  of  Wallace  and  Bruce,  are  of  early  con- 
struction. A  congeries  of  cairns,  over  100  in  number, 
remains  at  Girharrow,  Glencairn.  Of  stone  circles,  the 
most  perfect  are  the  Twelve  Apostles  of  Holywood  and 
the  Girdlestanes  of  Eskdalemuir.  The  last  of  another 
circle  is  the  historic  Clochmabenstane,  in  Gretna,  already 
referred  to.  Two  rocking-stones — off  the  balance — are 
seen  at  Belstane,  Drumlanrig,  and  at  Glenwhargen. 

The  Romans  left  permanent  monuments  of  their 
occupation  in  the  Roman  Road  and  in  the  Camps  at 
Birrenswark  and  Birrens  in  Annandale,  as  well  as  at 
Overbie  and  in  smaller  outposts,  of  which  a  splendid 
example  is  found  on  the  Waalpath,  Durisdeer.  The 
numerous  inscribed  stones  found  in  Birrens  threw  a 
great  light  on  the  Roman  occupation  and  recorded  that 
the  Second  Tungrian  Cohort,  the  First  German  Cohort, 
u  called  the  Nervana,"  and  part  of  the  Sixth  Legion, 
were  stationed  here  in  the  second  century.  Portions  of 
the  Roman  Road — the  magna  via — which  entered  Scot- 
land at  Gretna,  made  for  Birrens  and  Birrenswark,  and 
passed  up  Annandale  into  Lanarkshire,  are  still  visible. 
A  secondary  branch  turned  off  west  at  Gallaberry  and 
traversed  Nithsdale,  emerging  by  the  Waalpath  (wald  or 
wood-path)  into  Crawford.  A  side-road  passed  into  the 
Cairn  Valley.  Another  branch  went  through  Eskdale 
on  to  Trimontium — the  Eildons.  One  of  the  most  in- 
explicable objects  of  antiquity  is  The  Deil's  Dyke,  a  deep 
ditch  with  the  earth  thrown  up  to  form  a  breastwork 
fronting  south  and  west.  In  places  it  is  faced  with  stone. 
It  was  traced  by  Joseph  Train  from  Lochryan  through 

H.  D.  7 



Galloway  into   Ayrshire.      Portions   of  it   are  visible  at 
Cairn  Hill,  in  Sanquhar,  west  of  Mennock,  in  Dalveen, 



MI..        , 



Altar  of  Minerva  found  at  Birrens 

and  on  the  hills  east  of  Morton  Castle.     On  Bellybucht 
Hill,  Morton,  and  on  Townhead  farm,  a  fine  stretch  like 


a  raised  beach  is  seen.  Through  Annandale  it  is  traced 
on  its  way  to  Nith  or  the  Solway.  The  theory  may  be 
hazarded  that  this  is  a  rude  imitation  of  the  Roman  Wall, 
erected  by  the  folk  in  Strathclyde,  after  the  withdrawal 
of  the  Roman  soldiery,  in  order  to  keep  the  Galwegian 
Picts  in  check. 

Of  motes  and  mote-sites  one  of  the  largest  and  most 
interesting  is  that  of  Jarbruck,  known  as  The  Bow-butts 
of  Ingleston,  in  Glencairn.  It  is  an  oblong  raised  area, 
2OO  feet  long  and  from  40  to  60  feet  broad,  and  is  sur- 
mounted at  each  end  by  a  tower  of  forced  earth,  respec- 
tively 30  and  44  feet  high.  It  has  the  characteristics  of 
a  site  of  a  Norman  palisaded  stronghold,  or  peel.  Among 
the  many  watch-hills,  watch-fells,  watch  man's-knowes, 
and  bale-hills  in  the  shire,  the  following  are  beacon-heights 
noted  in  the  fifteenth  century :  Trailtrow  (or  Repentance 
Tower),  Wardlaw,  Trohoughton,  Barlouth,  Pantath, 
Whytewoollen,  Dowlarg,  Kinnelknock,  The  Bleize, 
Gallowhill,  Watchfell  (Closeburn),  Cruffel  (Sanquhar), 

Of  the  restricted  culture  of  the  aborginal  races  we  have 
evidence  in  tools  from  the  water-worn  stone  up  to  the 
mpst  carefully  designed  and  highly  polished  stone-axe  of 
greenstone.  Flint  arrow-tips  and  javelin  heads,  sandstone 
hammers,  massive  pierced  grey  sandstone  hammers,  axes 
of  greenstone,  compact  sandstone,  granite,  claystone,  and 
whin  are  numerous.  A  man  digging  peats  in  Solway 
Moss  discovered  a  stone  axe  inserted  in  its  handle,  just 
as  elsewhere  flint  tips  have  been  found  in  the  original 
arrow  shafts.  Adder  stones,  beads,  whorls,  and  other 



objects  in  great  variety,  belonging  to  a  primitive  age,  have 
been  found.  Many  querns,  barley-stones  or  "knockers," 
and  pounders  still  lie  near  old  habitations. 

The  Bronze  Age  is  also  well  illustrated  by  the  many 
weapons  and  ornaments  found  in  this  area.  Socketed 
spearheads,  daggers,  sword  blades  of  all  sizes,  socketed 
axe-heads,  and  other  articles  in  bronze,  in  excellent 
condition  are  preserved  in  museums.  Bronze  paterae  of 
a  Roman  type  were  unearthed  near  Friars  Carse  in  1790. 
A  magnificent  bronze  pot  found  in  East  Morton  was  per- 
sonally carried  off  to  Abbotsford  by  Sir  Walter  Scott.  A 
neat  bronze  tripod  ewer  was  found  in  Glencairn,  another 
in  Keir,  and  another  near  Bonshaw  Tower.  A  lovely 
example  of  bronze  metal  and  enamel  work  is  a  bridle-bit 
found  near  Birrenswark.  A  rare  specimen  of  a  beaded 
collar,  or  neck-ring,  in  bronze,  6J  inches  in  diameter,  of 
late  Celtic  type,  beautiful  in  design  and  finish,  was  found 
in  Lochar  Moss,  lying  within  a  gracefully  shaped  bronze 
bowl.  A  fillet  of  thin  bronze,  ornamented  in  delicate 
repousse  work,  and  five  bosses  of  bronze  were  found  in  the 
shire.  A  golden  collar  was  found  in  Middle  Nithsdale. 

Evidences  of  Celtic  and  later  culture  are  preserved  in 
the  few  fragments  of  cross-shafts  still  remaining.  The 
pedestal  of  the  baptismal  font  in  Kirkconnel  Church, 
Nithsdale,  is  part  of  a  Celtic  cross-shaft.  Portions  of  the 
sculptured  stone  crosses  of  Closeburn,  Durisdeer,  Glencairn, 
and  Penpont  are  preserved  in  the  Dr  Grierson  Museum, 
Thornhill.  A  fragment  of  the  cross  of  Hoddom,  display- 
ing a  saint  with  a  nimbus,  is  preserved.  One  of  the  most 
important  relics  of  antiquity  is  the  Ruthwell  Cross,  dashed 


into  pieces  in  the  seventeenth  century,  but  now,  since 
1887,  safely  guarded  within  the  parish  church  of  Ruth  well 
under  the  Ancient  Monuments  Preservation  Act.  It  is 
one  of  the  few  sculptured  high-crosses  remaining  in  Scot- 
land. It  was  erected  for  a  devotional  purpose.  It  is  a 

Torque  and  Bowl  found  at  Lochar  Moss 

free  standing  cross,  17  feet  high.  The  shaft  measures 
10  feet  6  inches  high  and  3  feet  i  inch  across  the  arms. 
The  shaft  tapers  from  21  inches  to  13  inches  in  breadth 
and  from  18  inches  to  9  inches  in  thickness.  The  stone 

Ruthwell  Cross 


is  sculptured  in  relief  in  ten  panels  on  each  side;  and  the 
sculpture  represents  incidents  recorded  in  the  Old  and  New 
Testaments.  Inscriptions  in  incised  Saxon  capitals  quote 
texts  in  the  Vulgate.  An  Anglian  runic  inscription  on 
the  sides  of  the  cross  is  taken  from  The  Dream  of  the 
Rood,  which  has  been  attributed  to  Cynewulf,  probably 
of  Northumbrian  origin  and  writing  in  the  eighth  century. 
Other  authorities  have  attributed  The  Dream  to  Caedmon, 
and  Stephens  deciphered  part  of  the  Ruthwell  runes  as 
"Kadmon  maefaucetho,"  which  he  translated  "Caedmon 
made  me."  But,  two  objections  have  been  urged  to  this 
— first,  that  these  words  are  mere  jargon,  belonging  to  no 
known  or  possible  Old  English  dialect ;  second, these  words 
cannot  come  from  the  runes  visible  on  the  cross.  This 
remarkable  object  is  reminiscent  of  the  return  wave  of 
Celtic  Christianity  out  of  England. 

At  a  ford  across  the  Nith  at  Thornhill,  stands  a 
beautiful  floriated  sandstone  cross  of  fifteenth  century 
work,  in  a  good  state  of  preservation,  and  only  wanting 
parts  of  the  arms.  It  was  probably  a  terminal  or  votive 
cross  and  thus  escaped  the  iconoclasts  of  the  seventeenth 
century.  The  shaft  measures  9  feet  2  inches  long,  tapers 
from  1 8  to  15  inches  in  breadth,  and  from  7  to  8  inches 
in  thickness.  It  is  a  panelled  cross  with  zoomorphic  and 
dragonesque  designs. 

A  later  cross  is  that  still  standing  in  the  baronial 
market-place  of  Moniaive,  and  placed  there  by  Fergusson 
of  Craigdarroch  in  1638.  On  it  the  jougs,  still  preserved, 
were  formerly  affixed.  A  mere  fragment  of  the  historic 
Cross  of  Sanquhar  is  preserved  in  a  United  Free  Church 



in  Sanquhar.  The  Cross  of  Thornhill,  comparatively 
modern,  is  admitted  to  be  the  handsomest  market-cross 
in  the  country,  and  was  erected  about  1714  by  the  Duke 
of  Queensberry.  Its  high,  massive,  fluted  column,  erected 
upon  a  massive  octagonal  base,  approached  by  a  series  of 

Boatford  Cross  and  Nith  Bridge 

steps,  and  all  cut  out  of  the  local  red  sandstone,  is  sur- 
mounted by  a  bronze  flying  Pegasus. 

In  Kirkpatrick-Fleming  parish  are  preserved  two 
crosses — one  at  Kirkconnel,  besides  the  ancient  church, 
formed  from  one  grey  stone  in  the  form  of  a  Latin  cross, 
and  standing  7  feet  4  inches  high  ;  and  another  at 



Merkland.  The  latter  stands  about  1 1  feet  and  a  half  high, 
the  shaft  being  9  feet  high  and  surmounted  by  a  pierced 
cross  formed  by  the  union  of  four  fleur-de-lis.  It  is  said 
to  mark  the  spot  where  the  Master  of  Maxwell  fell  after 
the  defeat  of  Albany,  in  the  neighbourhood,  in  1484. 

Thornhill  Cross 

The  tombstones,  once  sculptured,  of  "  Fair  Helen  "  and 
Adam  Fleming  are  to  be  seen  in  Kirkconnel  churchyard, 
beside  the  Kirtle. 

Roman   coins  of  the    age   of   Nero,  Vespasian,  and 
Domitian    were    found    at    Broomholm     in    Langholm. 


Roman  coins  were  got  in  the  excavation  of  Birrens  camp. 
Hoards  of  coins,  especially  of  the  mints  of  the  Edwards 
of  England,  have  been  found  in  Durisdeer,  Closeburn, 
and  in  other  parishes.  Few  of  the  Borderers'  blades 
which  fought  for  Crown  and  Covenant  escaped  the  search 
made  for  them  under  the  disarming  statutes  of  the  later 
Stewart  kings. 

19.     Architecture — (a)   Ecclesiastical. 

Dumfriesshire  is  unique  in  this  respect  that  there  is 
not  preserved  within  it  a  single  example  of  a  Celtic, 
British,  Saxon,  Norman  or  Medieval  church,  or  eccle- 
siastical edifice.  This  is  one  unhappy  result  of  warfare 
on  the  Borders.  The  much  admired  abbeys  of  Lincluden 
and  Sweetheart  are  just  over  the  boundaries:  no  similar 
ecclesiastical  edifices — churches  or  religious  houses — of 
such  beauty  and  distinction  existed  in  the  county,  as  far 
as  is  known.  There  remain  well-defined  sites  and  foun- 
dations of  primitive  churches  indicating  their  smallness. 
The  Grey  Friars  monastery,  Dumfries,  was  totally  razed 
and  its  stones  utilised  in  local  edifices  and  in  St  Michael's 
church.  Similarly  the  abbey  of  the  White  Friars  at  Holy- 
wood  (Sacrum  Nemus^  Dercongal),  built  in  1141,  as  well 
as  a  later  Hospital,  has  disappeared  save  a  few  fragments. 
A  precious  bell  with  its  Latin  inscription  bearing  that 
"John  Welsh,  Abbot  of  Holy  wood,  caused  me  to  be 
made  in  1505,"  still  hangs  in  a  modern  belfry  of  the 
parish  church.  Of  Lochmaben  church,  an  ancient  bell 


said  to  have  been  the  gift  of  King  Robert  Bruce,  is  the 
only  relic.  Its  Latin  inscription,  translated,  runs  "John 
Adam  made  me.  Hail  Mary ! '  The  vesper  bell  of 
Dumfries,  presented  to  the  town  in  1443  by  Lord  Carlyle 
of  Torthorwald,  is  now  a  relic  in  the  Observatory  Museum, 

A  fragment  of  the  Priory  of  the  Canons  regular  of 
St  Augustine — founded  in  Canonbie  by  Turgot  de  Rosse- 
dal,  in  the  reign  of  David  I — remains  in  the  churchyard 
there.  It  is  a  beautiful  Gothic  arch,  being  part  of  the 
sedilia,  of  thirteenth  century  date,  and  forms  a  framework 
for  the  monument  of  a  former  parish  minister.  The 
English  army  destroyed  the  church  and  priory  in  1542. 
Of  the  early  church  of  St  Cuthbert,  at  Moffat,  only  a 
part  of  a  Gothic  window  with  one  mullion,  of  uncertain 
date,  is  left.  Nothing  visible  of  the  ancient  church  of 
Sanquhar  remains.  The  present  edifice  covers  the  foun- 
dations of  the  older  structure,  which  excavations  in  1895 
proved  to  have  been  a  nave  and  choir,  96  feet  long  and 
30  feet  6  inches  broad.  The  late  Marquess  of  Bute  re- 
stored to  the  church  the  effigy  of  a  medieval  ecclesiastic, 
probably  a  Crichton,  rector  of  Sanquhar,  which  was  long 
preserved  at  Friars  Carse.  An  effigy,  said  to  be  that  of 
Simon  de  Carruthers,  is  seen  at  Mouswald :  a  much  later 
effigy  lies  in  Morton  churchyard ;  and  three  sculptured 
monuments  of  early  date  are  shown  in  Dornock  church- 
yard. At  Kirkbride,  Durisdeer,  the  shattered  walls  of  a 
pre-Reformation  church  exist,  and  an  early  pointed  win- 
dow constructed  of  two  stones.  Among  the  debris  lie 
the  fragments  of  an  effigy  of  an  ecclesiastic  who  bore  the 

Queensberry  Monument,  Durisdeer  Church 


name  of  "  Gabrialdus."  The  present  parish  church  of 
Durisdeer  has  a  distinctive  tower,  church,  school,  and 
ducal  waiting-rooms,  all  formed  out  of  the  dark  red  ashlar 
masonry  of  the  obliterated  castle  of  Durisdeer,  famous  in 
the  Wars  of  Independence.  A  similar  fate  befell  the 
"dun"  of  Tynron,  now  transferred  to  Tynron  parish 
church.  The  church  of  Durisdeer  was  built  in  the  end 
of  the  seventeenth  century  by  the  artificers  who  com- 
pleted Drumlanrig  Castle.  In  a  mausoleum  annexed  to 
the  church  an  elaborate  marble  monument  is  erected  to 
commemorate  the  Duke  and  Duchess  of  Queensberry, 
who  died  respectively  in  1711  and  1709.  It  is  reckoned 
a  masterpiece  of  Roubiliac,  and  the  exquisite  carving, 
especially  of  lace,  upon  the  white  Carrara  marble  is  much 

The  churches,  built  in  the  eighteenth  century,  when 
there  was  a  revival  of  ecclesiastical  activity,  are  of  a  most 
uninteresting  domestic  type,  with  the  exception  of  St 
Michael's  church,  Dumfries.  It  stands  upon  the  site  of 
a  very  early  church.  The  steeple  was  built  in  1744.  A 
graveyard,  in  which  Robert  Burns  and  many  distinguished 
Dumfriesians  are  buried,  surrounds  the  church.  In  the 
nineteenth  century  many  beautiful  churches  have  been 
built  both  in  the  larger  towns  and  villages,  the  most 
beautiful  of  all  being  the  Gothic  Memorial  Church 
erected  in  1889-1898  near  Dumfries,  in  memory  of 
Dr  Crichton  and  of  Mrs  Crichton,  founders  of  The 
Crichton  Royal  Institution  for  the  weak-minded.  A 
striking  feature  in  the  landscape  of  Moffat  are  the  parish 
church  and  manse,  built  of  red  Corncockle  sandstone  in 



Early  English  Gothic  style,  and  finished  with  great  chaste- 
ness  in  1887.  Another  handsome  edifice  in  Moffat  is  the 
United  Free  Church  in  French  Gothic.  Among:  other 


fine  parish  churches  are  Morton,  Penpont,  Closeburn, 
and  Greyfriars,  Dumfries. 

Crichton  Memorial  Church,  Dumfries 

20.     Architecture — (6)  Castellated. 

The  deficiency  of  Dumfriesshire  in  old  ecclesiastical 
edifices  is  made  up  for  by  the  number  of  its  historic 
castles  and  towers,  in  ruins  or  in  habitable  use.  Of 
noble  piles  upreared  to  dominate  the  rural  scene  are 


Drumlanrig,  "The  House  of  the  Hassock,"  with  im- 
perious front  watching  Middle  Nithsdale  ;  Caerlaverock, 
even  in  ruins  still  mightily  menacing  the  Solway  and  the 
Strath  of  Nith ;  and  royal  Lochmaben,  holding  guard  of 
Annandale.  No  structural  remains  belong  to  Saxon  or 
Anglo-Norman  times,  except  fragments  encased  in  later 
buildings.  Of  fortresses  in  the  thirteenth  century  only 
three  of  first  importance  are  mentioned — Morton,  Dal- 
swinton,  and  Lochmaben,  and  the  original  castles  exist  no 
more.  An  almost  perfect  mote,  overlooking  the  Annan, 
is  all  that  remains  to  tell  what  a  strength  Annari  once 

The  oft-repaired  castle  of  Caerlaverock,  with  its  de- 
fended approaches,  marsh,  ditches,  deep  moat,  high  walls, 
lofty  and  massive  towers,  is  an  example  of  a  strong  feudal 
fortress.  It  is  not  Anglo-Norman.  Its  outer  walls  are 
of  date  not  later  than  the  thirteenth  century.  It  is  an 
aggregation  of  works  of  six  different  periods,  but  in  one 
part  or  another  it  is  an  historic  eye-witness  of  the  events 
of  six  centuries  and  a  half.  On  a  mound,  surrounded 
with  water  in  a  moat  70  feet  wide,  this  castle  is  built  on 
a  triangular  plan,  the  largest  base  being  171  feet  and  the 
other  two  j  50  feet  in  length.  Between  two  towers,  which 
are  26  feet  in  inside  diameter  and  40  feet  high,  built  at 
the  apex  of  the  triangle  are  situated  the  great  entrance 
gate,  door,  and  drawbridge.  A  tower  stands  at  each  of 
the  other  points  of  the  triangle.  A  castle  on  a  similar 
plan  fell  to  the  attack  of  Edward  I  in  1300,  and  the  pre- 
sent castle,  while  bearing  marks  of  reconstruction  shortly 
after  that  event,  has  many  more  additions  dating  from  the 


fifteenth  and  sixteenth  centuries.  The  castle  also  stood 
sieges  in  1312  and  in  1640  (see  p.  94).  It  was  the  seat 
of  the  Maxwells,  knights,  lords,  earls,  sheriffs,  stewards, 
and  wardens  of  the  Marches,  and  is  now  the  property  of 
their  descendant,  the  Duchess  of  Norfolk. 

The  first  castle  of  Lochmaben  stood  on  the  site  now 
known  as  the  Castlehill.  The  second,  and  existing  strong- 
hold, is  built  on  a  peninsula  covering  sixteen  acres  running 
into  the  Castle  loch,  and  defended  by  ditches  and  a  deep 
ashlar  lined  moat.  Access  to  it  was  got  by  boat  rowed 
into  a  defended  ditch.  In  some  parts  it  dates  from  before 
1300.  This  important  place  stood  many  sieges.  Edward  I 
took  it  in  1298;  Bruce  fled  to  it  in  1306;  De  Boune  held 
it  in  1346;  Douglas  took  it  in  1384;  and  James  VI 
stormed  it  in  1588.  On  this  last  occasion  the  office  of 
constable  was  transferred  from  Lord  Maxwell  to  Johnstone 
of  Annandale.  It  was  granted  to  John  Murray  in  1612, 
and  is  now  held  by  the  Earl  of  Mansfield.  In  1503-4 
James  IV  repaired  the  castle  and  built  the  great  hall. 

Of  simple  vaulted  towers,  dating  from  the  fourteenth 
century,  there  are  two  good  examples,  in  Closeburn  and 
Torthorwald.  Closeburn  Castle,  formerly  the  seat  of  the 
Kirkpatricks,  is  a  massive  rectangular  tower,  founded  on 
a  mound  in  a  lake  now  drained,  and  consisting  of  three 
vaulted  stories.  It  measures  45  feet  by  34  feet  6  inches, 
and  rises  50  feet  to  the  parapet.  The  old  curiously 
wrought  iron  "yett"  (gate)  still  hangs  opposite  the  old 
entrance  high  in  the  wall  on  the  first  floor.  The  castle 
is  still  inhabited. 

Torthorwald  Castle,  the  ancient  seat  of  the  Carlyles, 


now  in  ruins,  also  stood  on  a  mound  in  a  marsh,  defended 
with  a  ditch.  It  is  also  an  oblong  vaulted  hold,  56  feet 
6  inches  by  39  feet  2  inches,  and  rising  45  feet  to  the 
apex  of  the  highest  vault. 

Of  keeps  to  which  domiciliary  additions  were  added 
in  the  period  between  1400  and  1542,  mention  may  be 

Morton   Castle 

made  of  three — Morton,  Sanquhar,  and  Comlongon. 
Morton,  three  miles  north  of  Thornhill,  stands  on  the 
site  of  an  older  castle,  on  a  steep  eminence  overlooking 
a  natural  loch.  Its  plan  is  remarkable.  Between  two 
lofty  towers  access  was  got  to  an  irregular  oblong  build- 
ing, whose  high  ashlar  walls  extended  92  feet  till  they 
ended  in  another  tower  at  the  south-east  angle.  Parallel 
H.  D.  8 


to  this  building  was  another  of  similar  character  and  size. 
The  great  hall  measured  93  feet  by  31  feet.  This  massive 
pile  had  an  imposing  appearance.  The  Celtic  overlord 
Dunegal  and  his  powerful  descendants  had  a  castle  here. 
From  them  it  passed  through  Randolph,  to  the  crown 
and  to  the  Douglases  of  Nithsdale.  From  Sir  William 
Douglas  of  Coshogle  and  Morton,  in  1619,  it  passed  to 
the  Dukes  of  Queensberry  and  from  them  to  the  Scotts 
of  Buccleuch,  who  hold  it  still. 

Sanquhar  keep  still  stands  in  the  corner  of  a  fort 
defending  a  courtyard  into  which  entry  is  obtained  from 
another  defended  yard.  The  domiciliary  buildings  attached 
to  the  keep  occupy  an  eminence  overlooking  the  Nith — 
the  area  of  the  site  being  167  feet  by  128  feet.  The 
keep  is  a  vaulted  edifice  measuring  23  feet  square  inside 
and  with  walls  10  feet  thick.  The  Dunegal  family  had 
an  interest  in  the  place,  and  after  them  Rosses  and 
Crichtons  became  the  barons.  In  1296  William  le 
Tailleur  was  the  "Warden  of  the  new  place  of  Senewar." 
In  the  fifteenth  century  a  Crichton  built  the  keep  and  his 
descendants  enlarged  it  into  a  fortified  residence.  The 
Earl  of  Dumfries  disposed  of  the  barony  of  Sanquhar  to 
the  Earl  of  Queensberry  in  1639;  and  his  descendant, 
the  Duke  of  Buccleuch,  sold  the  castle  to  the  late 
Marquess  of  Bute  in  1896. 

A  very  fine  example  of  a  fifteenth  century  vaulted 
house  is  the  oblong  keep  of  Comlongon,  near  Ruthwell. 
It  measures  48  feet  10  inches  by  42  feet  7  inches  and  rises 
49  feet  to  the  top  of  the  battlements.  The  gabled  rooms 
above  the  battlements  and  the  turret  afford  a  picturesque 


feature.  The  iron  "yett"  still  bars  the  entrance.  The 
basement  vault  is  1 7  feet  5  inches  square  ;  the  hall 
measures  29  feet  4  inches  by  21  feet  2  inches,  and  rises 
14  feet  6  inches  to  the  roof.  With  other  domiciliary 
additions  Comlongon  Castle  is  now  a  residence  of  the 
Earl  of  Mansfield.  Cockpool,  or  Cokepule,  Tower,  an 
older  residence  of  the  Murrays,  stood  a  short  way  off. 

Amisfield  Tower  is  one  of  the  most  picturesque  of 
the  later  strong  houses  with  vaulted  apartments.  It  is  an 
oblong  of  31  feet  6  inches  by  29  feet,  and  has  a  great 
hall  21  feet  by  15  feet.  It  was  the  seat  of  the  Charterises, 
and  bears  the  arms  and  initials,  "I.C.  1600,"  of  John 
Charteris.  Built  in  the  same  period  are  the  two  ruined 
towers  of  the  Johnstones,  Lochwood,  and  Lochhouse, 
near  Beattock.  It  was  the  inaccessible  sites  of  such 
towers  that  made  the  Scottish  king  say  that  only  a  thief 
in  heart  could  have  built  them  there.  Another  fortalice 
of  the  same  character  with  earlier  foundations  is  Spedlins 
Tower,  the  ancient  seat  of  the  Jardines.  This  massive 
vaulted  structure,  repaired  in  1605,  situated  over  ^ve  miles 
north  from  Lockerbie,  has  a  striking  appearance  with  its 
projecting  turrets  at  the  four  corners  and  deserves  to  be 
restored.  Elshieshields  Tower,  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
Lochmaben,  is  inhabited. 

Robgill,  Woodhouse,  and  Bonshaw  Towers  stand  near 
each  other  in  Kirkpatrick-Fleming.  Bonshaw  Tower, 
the  seat  of  the  gallant  Irvings,  with  its  separate  domiciliary 
additions,  is  now  inhabited.  It  stands  on  the  top  of  a  high 
bank  above  the  deep  vale  of  the  Kirtle,  a  short  distance 
back  from  the  cliff.  It  consists  of  four  floors  with  one 




room  on  each  floor,  to  which  a  good  wheel  stair  leads. 
A  fine  hall,  lit  by  four  windows,  measures  27  feet  by 
17  feet  8  inches  and  by  10  feet  3  inches  to  the  ceiling. 
On  the  lintel  of  this  hoary  tower  is  inscribed  the  motto 
"Soli  Deo  Honor  Et  Gloria."  It  is  one  of  the  few  local 
castles  possessed  and  occupied  by  a  descendant  of  the 

Bonshaw  Tower 

Johnie  Armstrong's  House- 
Hollows  Tower 

original  holder,  and   chief  of  a  Border  clan.     It   is  the 
seat  of  Colonel  Irving. 

Repentance  Tower  is  a  beacon  tower,  built  about  1 562 
by  Lord  Herries,  Warden  of  the  West  March,  on  the  site 
of  the  old  chapel  of  Trevertrold  or  Trailtrow,  on  an 
eminence  in  a  graveyard  above  Hoddom  Castle  and 


overlooking  the  Solway  Strath.  The  founder  had  "a  greit 
bell  and  the  fyir  pan  put  on  it."  Above  the  doorway  is 
inscribed  the  word  "Repentence."  Hoddom  Castle, 
another  keep  built  by  Lord  Herries  and  altered  in  the 
seventeenth  century,  when  it  was  sold  to  Sir  Richard 
Murray,  with  its  extensive  domiciliary  additions,  is  situated 
in  a  fine  demesne  and  is  the  residence  of  Mr  E.  J.  Brook. 

Hoddom  Castle 

All  these  fortified  residences  are  put  in  the  shade  by 
the  magnificent  pile  of  Drumlanrig,  in  whose  foundations 
are  encased  part  of  "The  House  of  the  Hassock,"  of 
which  the  "Whig's  Hole,"  or  vault,  with  the  iron  "yett," 
remains  as  a  nucleus  for  the  vast  superimposed  domicile. 
It  consists  of  a  rectangular  building  146  feet  by  120  feet, 


built  round  an  open  courtyard  measuring  77  feet  by  57 
feet.  The  basement,  which  is  the  kitchen  department, 
is  vaulted.  By  a  double  ram's-horn  staircase  access  is 
gained  to  a  platform,  resting  on  an  arcade,  and  to  the 
doorway  and  porch  under  a  central  tower  with  its  great 
hall,  52  feet  by  20  feet.  Within  there  was  formerly  a 
magnificent  gallery  145  feet  long,  which  is  now  curtailed. 

Stapleton  Towers 

At  each  corner  of  the  courtyard  a  circular  stair  gives 
access  to  the  various  floors  and  roofs.  The  building  was 
begun  in  1675  by  William,  third  Earl  of  Queensberry, 
and  finished  by  him  when  Duke  in  1689. 

Among  other  fortalices  in  the  county  the  following  were 
of  note,  few  being  still  tenanted: — Auchen,  Auchincass, 
Barjarg,  Blacket,  Bogrie,  Cornal,  Cowhill,  Dalswinton, 


Dryfesdale,  Eliock,  Enoch,  Frenchland,  Friars  Carse, 
Glenae,  Glendinning,  Hollows,  Holmains,  Isle,  Bankend 
(Isle),  Lag,  Newbie,  Raffels,  Redhill,  Sandy  well,  Stapleton, 
Mouswald,  Tibbers,  Wallace's  House,  and  Woodhouse. 

Of  recent  mansions  in  the  style  of  a  fortalice  may  be 
noted  Lettrick  in  Dunscore,  the  home  of  Major-General 

21.     Architecture  —  (c)    Municipal    and 

The  towns  in  the  south-west  of  Scotland  are  not 
sufficiently  large  and  wealthy  to  permit  of  the  erection 
of  any  municipal  or  public  buildings  of  the  first  rank,  and 
none  have  survived  from  the  past.  On  the  main  street 
of  Sanquhar  stands  a  very  picturesque  tolbooth  or  council- 
house,  presenting  a  high  tower  with  a  conical  roof,  with 
pinnacles  at  the  corners,  and  with  a  parapet  resting  on  an 
ornamental  corbel  table.  An  outside  stair  gives  access  to 
a  platform  and  from  it  to  the  tower  and  the  chambers 
annexed.  The  buildings  are  of  late  erection — after  the 
sixteenth  century. 

On  the  High  Street  of  Dumfries  the  most  prominent 
object  is  the  mid-steeple,  town  steeple,  or  town  house,  built 
between  1705  and  1708,  of  Castledyke  sandstone.  The 
tower  is  said  to  be  modelled  after  that  formerly  in  the 
old  college  of  Glasgow.  On  the  south  front  the  royal 
arms  of  Scotland,  a  figure  of  St  Michael  treading  upon 
the  serpent,  and  the  standard  ell,  are  shown  sculptured. 
The  whole  edifice  has  lately  been  repaired  and  decorated. 



The  county  buildings,  in  Buccleuch  Street,  consist  of  a 
very  imposing  edifice,  in  the  Scottish  baronial  style. 

The  town  hall  of  Annan  is  a  capacious  building,  of 
baronial  style,  surmounted  by  a  clock  tower,  from  which 
curfew  is  rung  every  night.  It  stands  on  the  site  of  the 
old  castle,  a  short  distance  from  the  river,  at  the  western 

The  Mid  Steeple  and  High  Street,  Dumfries 

end   of   High    Street.       Before    it   stands   the   statue    of 
Edward    Irving. 

Lockerbie  has  an  imposing  town  hall,  with  a  lofty 
clock  tower  finished  with  a  small  spire  rising  above  four 
turrets  at  the  angles  of  the  parapet.  It  was  founded  in 
1887  to  commemorate  the  Jubilee  of  Queen  Victoria. 



The  assembly  hall  is  very  handsome.  Contiguously  placed 
is  the  Carnegie  Library,  with  its  supplementary  suite  of 
rooms  for  amusements. 

The  town  hall  of  Langholm,  in  the  market-place,  was 
the  gift  of  the  Duke  of  Buccleuch.     Beside  it  stands  a 

Annan  Town  Hall! 

{Showing  statue  of  Irving)\ 

handsome  edifice  built  of  the  white  sandstone  of  Whita 
Hill,  as  a  public  library  to  house  the  books  purchased  with 
a  bequest  left  by  Telford  the  engineer.  The  Thomas 
Hope  Hospital,  Langholm,  is  a  large  building,  a  prominent 
feature  of  which  is  a  central  castellated  tower,  erected  out 



of  a  bequest  of  Mr  Hope,  a  native  of  Westerkirk,  for  the 
treatment  of  the  sick  and  the  succour  of  the  indigent. 

Lochmaben  town  hall  at  the  one  end  of  the  main 
street  and  the  church  at  the  other  are  the  two  features  of 
the  royal  burgh.  In  a  niche  above  the  door  of  the  town 
hall  is  a  statue  to  the  Rev.  William  Graham,  looking 


down  on  a  white  sandstone  statue  of  King  Robert"  the 
Bruce,  placed  there  mainly  by  the  exertions  of  Mr  Graham. 
The  beautiful  mansions  of  the  county,  many  set  in 
charming  surroundings,  are  a  distinctive  feature,  and  are  the 
residences  of  many  landlords  who  take  a  personal  interest 
in  all  local  affairs.  Among  the  many  are  Cowhill, 


Comlongon  Castle,  Crawfordton,  Castlemilk,  Duncow, 
Elshieshields,  Friars  Carse,  Jardine  Hall,  Langholm  Lodge, 
Newtonairds,  Raehills,  and  Stapleton  Tower. 

Friars  Carse,  Dunscore 

22.     Communications  —  Past  and   Pre= 
sent.     Roads  and  Railways. 

In  comparison  with  other  districts  this  territory,  since 
the  occupation  of  the  Romans,  has  enjoyed  splendid 
means  of  communication.  The  great  western  Roman 


road  out  of  Caesariensis  Maxima  into  Valentia  passed 
through  Carlisle  on  to  Longtown,  in  Cumberland.  Here 
one  branch  went  by  Netherby  to  Liddel  Moat  up  Eskdale 
to  Castle  Oe'r  and  Raeburnfoot  onward  to  Trimontium 
or  The  Eildons.  Another  branch  crossed  the  Sark  at 
Burghslacks  near  Gretna,  passed  into  Kirkpatrick  Fleming, 
on  by  Birrens,  through  Hoddom  by  Lockerbie  to  Gallow- 
berry  above  Lochmaben.  Here  the  road  branched  to 
the  west  towards  Nithsdale,  past  Lochmaben,  Tinwald, 
Duncow,  Closeburn,  Thornhill,  Durisdeer  village  to 
Crawford.  Smaller  branches  traversed  Kirkmichael, 
Glencairn  and  Tynron.  The  main  road  followed  the 
Annan  by  The  Devil's  Beef  Tub  to  Crawford,  where  it 
joined  the  Nithsdale  branch  again.  Remains  of  this  built 
road  are  traceable  and  have  been  laid  bare  in  many  places. 
After  the  passing  of  the  Turnpike  Act  in  1777,  by 
which  rates  were  leviable,  great  impetus  was  given  to 
road-making  and  bridge-building.  Old  thoroughfares, 
which  under  the  Act  of  1686  were  badly  kept  up  by  the 
tenantry,  were  widened,  drained,  and  fenced  in,  so  that  in 
the  beginning  of  the  nineteenth  century  Dumfriesshire 
was  intersected  by  good  mail  and  coach  roads.  Among 
those  then  interested  in  road-building  and  navigation  were 
Major-General  Dirom,  Mr  Maxwell  of  Springkell,  Patrick 
Miller  of  Dalswinton  and  Telford,  the  engineer.  A  new 
turnpike  road  from  Glasgow,  leading  down  Evandale  to 
Beattock  Bridge,  was  continued  by  Lochmaben  and  Annan 
to  Carlisle.  Another  was  made  through  the  vale  of 
Carron  to  Elvanfoot.  Later  still  another  was  laid  from 
Moffat  into  Nithsdale,  and  one  from  Springkell  to  Kelhead. 


The  main  road  ran  from  Carlisle  to  Dumfries,  then 
through  Galloway  to  Portpatrick,  so  that  there  was  every 
facility  for  the  transference  of  goods,  transport  of  passengers, 
and  driving  of  cattle.  Old  drove-roads  traversed  hill  and 
dale  in  all  directions,  and  these — such  as  that  still  visible 
in  Enterkin  Pass,  by  which  the  soldiers  of  Claverhouse 
took  the  Covenanters  to  Edinburgh — were  suitable  for 
foot  passengers,  pack-horses,  horses  with  sledges,  and 
droves.  Sir  Charles  Stuart-Menteith  introduced  stone 
causeways  for  steep  gradients  on  his  Closeburn  estate,  and 
early  in  the  nineteenth  century  plans  were  prepared  for 
an  iron  railway  between  Dumfries  and  the  coalfield  in 
Sanquhar,  for  a  canal  between  Dumfries  and  Carlisle,  and 
for  other  canals  from  Powfoot  to  Lochmaben,  Dalswinton 
to  Caerlaverock,  and  from  Annan  to  Kirkbank. 

There  are  many  passable  fords  on  the  rivers  and 
streams.  But  in  1812  there  were  16  good  bridges  in  the 
county — six  over  Nith,  five  over  Annan,  and  five  over 
Esk.  All  that  can  be  said  of  the  hoary  bridge,  which, 
without  documentary  proof  or  ancient  tradition,  is 
associated  with  the  name  of  Dervorgilla  as  its  supposed 
foundress,  is,  that  for  centuries  at  least  this  historic  bridge 
has  spanned  the  Nith  at  Dumfries,  and  is  a  memorial  of 
the  value  of  the  ancient  highway  into  Galloway.  The 
lovely  old  bridge  at  Drumlanrig,  ingeniously  improved  by 
Charles  Howitt,  half  a  century  ago,  is  a  structure  whose 
history  is  lost  in  antiquity.  Another  substantial  bridge 
crosses  the  Nith  at  Boatford,  near  Thornhill,  and,  as  the 
inscription  on  its  parapet  bears,  was  built  by  "  William 
Morton,  Master  Mason,  1777."  So  early  as  1560  a 


bridge  existed  in  Moniaive,  and  in  the  seventeenth 
century  Fergusson  of  Craigdarroch  built  a  bridge  of  one 
arch  over  the  Dalwhat,  and  to  this  another  arch  has  been 
added.  Through  Moniaive  ran  the  route  of  the  Craigen- 
gillan  coach,  which  did  the  journey  between  Dumfries 
and  Glasgow,  by  way  of  Carsphairn,  in  thirteen  hours  and 
three  quarters.  Other  "roaring  dillies,"  as  they  were 
called,  plied  between  Carlisle  and  Edinburgh  and  Glasgow 
through  Nithsdale  and  Annandale. 

A  new  bridge  at  Dumfries,  founded  in  1791,  was 
completed  in  1794;  another  handsome  bridge  over  the 
Annan  in  that  burgh  was  opened  in  1826.  The  bridge 
at  Dumfries  has,  within  recent  years,  been  widened  and 
beautified  at  the  private  expense  of  a  lady  citizen,  and  is 
now  an  elegant  and  broad  viaduct.  But  all  these  roads 
and  bridges  are  insignificant  compared  with  the  massive 
stone  embankments,  and  the  vast  viaducts  of  stone  and 
iron  required  by  the  railways  for  crossing  the  Nith, 
Annan,  Carron  and  Cample,  and  especially  the  magnifi- 
cent iron  viaduct  for  the  railroad  across  the  Solway  at 

Before  the  introduction  of  steam-traction  the  Nith 
and  the  Annan,  with  the  Solway  estuary,  formed  a 
natural  waterway  of  first  commercial  importance.  Large 
sums  of  money  have  been  expended  on  making  these 
waters  navigable.  There  are  no  canals  and  no  tramways 
in  the  county. 

By  the  introduction  of  the  locomotive  the  system  of 
transport  was  revolutionised,  and  "droving"  was  super- 
seded. The  Caledonian  Railway  from  Glasgow  and 


Edinburgh  to  Carlisle  was  opened  for  traffic  in  1847.  ^ts 
route  is  through  rocky  Evandale  and  down  Annandale, 
and  it  serves  all  the  vales  converging  on  MofFat  at  Beat- 
tock,  Lockerbie,  Ecclefechan,  Annan,  and  Gretna  Green. 
A  short  branch  line  connects  Beattock  to  MofFat.  At 
Annan  the  line  crosses  the  Solway  into  England.  A  keen 
parliamentary  fight  occurred  over  the  question  of  route 
through  Annandale  or  Nithsdale,  one  line  at  first  being 
considered  ample  from  a  paying  standpoint. 

This  undertaking  was  soon  followed  by  the  Glasgow  and 
South- Western  Railway,  which  was  completed  in  1850. 
Its  tract  is  through  Ayrshire  into  Dumfriesshire  at  Kirk- 
connel,  through  Sanquhar  and  the  grand  pass  below  it, 
through  Carronbridge  tunnel — a  thousand  yards  long,  and 
an  early  triumph  of  engineering — past  the  lovely  woods 
of  Drumlanrig,  down  Nithsdale,  past  Dumfries  and 
Annan  into  Carlisle  station,  where  the  Caledonian  and 
North  British  Railways  also  meet.  The  next  district 
tapped  was  Kirkcudbright,  by  a  branch  from  Dumfries  to 
Kirkcudbright,  in  1859 — later  extended  to  Stranraer  and 
Portpatrick.  Another  useful  branch  on  the  Caledonian 
system  is  that  connecting  Dumfries  and  Lockerbie  and 
serving  the  districts  round  Locharbriggs,  Amisfield,  Shield- 
hill,  Lochmaben,  and  Lockerbie  stations. 

The  North  British  system  from  Edinburgh  to  Carlisle 
skirts  the  county  on  the  south-east  frontier,  where,  at 
Riddings  junction,  a  branch  line  runs  north  by  Canonbie 
and  Gilnockie  (for  Claygate)  to  Langholm.  Further 
south  from  the  main  line  at  Longtown,  a  short  branch 
leads  to  Gretna. 


A  light  railway  from  Elvanfoot  to  Leadhills,  built  in 
1901,  has  been  extended  to  Wanlockhead.  Another  light 
railway — opened  in  1905 — part  of  the  Glasgow  and 
South- Western  system,  runs  up  the  vales  of  Cluden  and 
Cairn  through  Dunscore  to  Moniaive,  and  opens  up  these 
beautiful  pastoral  vales. 

23.     Administration     and     Divisions- 
Ancient  and  Modern. 

The  distinction  which  some  Border  land-owners  claim 
of  still  being  heads  of  ancient  families,  on  the  tribal  land 
in  their  possession,  is  a  relic  of  the  primitive  epoch  when 
chiefs  ruled  tribes  and  were  a  law  unto  themselves,  and  a 
kind  of  "Jeddart  Justice"  prevailed.  There  were  many 
baronies  in  this  shire  in  the  olden  time,  and,  indeed,  the 
present  Queensberry  Estate  is  composed  of  parts  of  14 
which  have  been  purchased.  In  these  chieftainries,  or 
baronies,  during  the  troublous  days  before  1603,  justice 
was  at  times  maintained  with  little  deference  to  the  feudal 
law  that  a  representative  of  the  Crown  should  sit  in  courts 
awarding  the  penalty  of  death.  A  clan  system  survived 
into  the  fifteenth  century,  for  we  find  David  II  appointing 
a  captain  to  the  clan  MacGowin,  and  Robert  III  con- 
firming another  officer  in  the  office  of  Toshachdarrach — 
Coroner  of  some  part  of  Nithsdale.  The  separate  "law 
of  Galloway"  was  another  survival  which  held  on  to  the 
fourteenth  century.  William  the  Lyon's  "Judges  of 
Galloway"  sat  in  Dumfries. 

H.  D.  9 


As  already  stated,  Cumbria  had  princely  government 
for  17  years,  together  with  local  government  by  Celtic 
chiefs.  Feudal  government  by  steward,  vice-comes  or 
sheriff,  and  bailie  succeeded;  and  the  royal  justiciar  per- 
ambulated on  circuit.  In  1189  Udard  of  Hoddom  acted 
as  steward  of  Annandale  for  the  Bruce;  in  1264-6 
Eymeric  de  Maccuswell  acted  as  "Vice-comes  de  Dum- 
freis"  and  collected  the  fiscal  revenues  of  Dumfries  and 
Galloway.  When  the  Celtic  maormors,  or  hereditary 
provincial  rulers,  disappeared  can  only  be  surmised.  From 
the  time  of  David  I  onward  the  feudal  system  of  adminis- 
tration, generally  speaking,  prevailed.  In  Edward  I's 
occupation  of  southern  Scotland  his  vice-comes  had 
jurisdiction  both  in  Dumfriesshire,  as  far  as  Eskdale,  and 
in  Kirkcudbright.  Under  the  Scottish  kings,  as  shown  in 
Chapter  I,  there  were  three  officers  of  the  Crown  having 
jurisdiction  in  the  shire  of  Dumfries,  and  this  arrange- 
ment continued  till  1748. 

Burghal  law  was  dispensed  in  Dumfries  from  the 
time  of  William  the  Lyon;  in  Lochmaben  and  Annan 
from  the  time  of  King  Robert  the  Bruce;  and  in 
Sanquhar,  the  other  royal  burgh,  from  1598,  when 
James  VI  gave  the  barony  its  charter.  Burghal  law 
met  all  cases  save  those  reserved  in  the  four  pleas  of 
the  Crown.  The  magistrates  had  jurisdiction  over  all 
except  the  King's  servants  in  his  castle,  for  whom  a 
separate  court  was  erected. 

There  was  also  a  written  code  of  laws  applicable  to 
residents  on  the  Borders,  drawn  up  in  1248-9,  and 
repeatedly  revised  by  commissioners  from  both  kingdoms. 


Wardens  of  the  Marches — east,  middle  and  west — were 
appointed  for  both  kingdoms,  and  these  met,  down  to  the 
union  of  the  Crowns,  to  see  that  these  Laws  of  the 
Marches  were  duly  carried  out. 

At  present  (1911)  the  Justices  of  the  Peace,  who 
have  interests  in  the  shire,  from  the  Lord  High  Chancellor 
downwards,  are  numerous.  The  Duke  of  Buccleuch, 
Lord  Lieutenant,  and  Keeper  of  the  Rolls  of  the  Peace, 
is  assisted  by  three  deputy  lieutenants  (two  are  baronets), 
by  one  marquis,  three  earls,  one  baron,  one  lord,  one 
master,  five  baronets,  two  knights-bachelor  and  over  two 
hundred  justices,  some  of  whom  are  privy-councillors,  and 
many  holders  of  land  in  the  county.  Under  the  Terri- 
torial and  Reserve  Forces  Act,  1907,  the  Lord  Lieutenant 
is,  ex-officio,  president  of  the  Territorial  Association.  The 
total  strength  of  the  5th  K.  O.  S.  B.  (Dumfries  and 
Galloway  Territorials)  is  about  900,  and  of  the  eight 
companies,  four  are  in  Dumfriesshire.  The  3rd  King's 
Own  Scottish  Borderers  (special  reserve),  520  strong,  also 
have  their  headquarters  in  Dumfries. 

Under  the  Local  Government  (Scotland)  Act  of  1889 
a  County  Council,  consisting  of  38  district  members  and 
four  members  representing  three  burghs,  transact  their 
proper  business.  They  meet  in  five  districts — Dumfries, 
Thornhill,  Annan,  Lockerbie,  and  Langholm — where 
representatives  of  40  parish  councils  and  of  four  burghs 
assemble  when  the  business  concerning  roads  and  bridges 
is  dealt  with.  Under  the  Licensing  Acts,  43  representa- 
tives sit  in  the  same  districts,  and  Appeal  Courts  are  held 
in  Dumfries  and  Annan. 




The  management  of  the  poor  and  of  certain  cemeteries 
and  churchyards  is  in  the  hands  of  42  parish  councils. 
These  councils  superseded  the  parochial  boards  which  were 
instituted  in  1845.  The  commissioners  of  supply,  whose 
duties  are  somewhat  curtailed  since  the  creation  of  county 

Old  Grammar  School,  Annan 

councils,  meet  to  appoint  their  representatives  on  the 
standing  joint  committee,  to  which  the  police  management 
is  entrusted.  A  joint  committee  of  the  county  council 
and  of  the  burghs  administer  the  acts  relative  to  weights, 
explosives,  foods,  and  drugs. 


Among  other  administrative  boards  are  the  County 
Road  Board,  the  District  Lunacy  Board,  the  District 
Fishery  Board,  Nith  Navigation  Commissioners,  Dumfries 
and  Maxwelltown  Waterwork  Commissioners,  Annan 
Harbour  Trust.  There  is  a  schoolboard  in  every  parish. 
Dumfries  has  a  burgh  schoolboard  and  a  landward  school- 
board.  There  are  academies  for  higher  education  in 
Dumfries,  Annan,  Langholm,  Lockerbie,  Moftat,  and 
Wallacehall  (Closeburn). 

Dumfriesshire  sends  one  member  to   parliament.     Its 
four  burghs  combined  with  Kirkcudbright  also  send  one. 

The  law  is  dispensed  by  a  sheriff-principal,  who  is 
now  an  appellate  judge,  by  a  sheriff-substitute,  and  by 
several  honorary  sheriff-substitutes.  The  sheriff  holds 
court  in  Dumfries  and  also  in  Annan.  The  constabulary 
consists  of  45  men  and  seven  watchers  employed  for 
fishery  protection. 

The  burgh  of  Dumfries  is  divided  into  eight  wards, 
three  councillors  sitting  for  each  of  seven  wards,  and  four 
for  the  eighth  ward.  There  is  a  Burgh  Licensing  Court 
and  an  Appeal  Court.  The  Town  Councils  of  Annan 
and  Lockerbie  consist  each  of  a  provost  and  1 1  councillors. 
Sanquhar,  Lochmaben,  and  Moffat  have  each  a  provost 
and  eight  councillors. 

In  early  Christian  times  Dumfriesshire  formed  a  part 
of  the  extensive  see  of  St  Mungo  (Kentigern),  which 
extended  far  into  England — to  the  Rere  Cross  of  Stane- 
more.  In  medieval  days  it  remained  in  the  see  of 
Glasgow ;  and  its  affairs  were  administered  in  the  deaneries 
Nithsdale,  Annandale,  and,  later,  of  Eskdale — Nithsdale 



with  21  churches,  nine  being  beyond  the  shire,  and 
Annandale  with  10  churches.  Some  of  these  churches 
were  attached  to  houses  in  Lesmahagow,  Holyrood,  Fail, 
Holywood,  Kilwinning,  Kelso,  Melrose,  Jedburgh,  and 

Town  Hall,   Lockerbie 

Lincluden.      Others  were  prebends  and  mensal  churches 
of  Glasgow. 

At  the  Reformation   the   churches  were   referred   to 
as  those   of  Nithsdale  and  Annandale.     The   Synod   of 


Dumfries  is  mentioned  in  1591 ;  the  Presbytery  of  Dum- 
fries in  1593.  The  Presbytery  of  Middlebie  in  1638  is 
turned  into  the  Presbytery  of  Annan  in  1742.  Sanquhar 
Presbytery,  mentioned  in  1607,  becomes  Penpont  in 
1638,  in  which  year  also  Lochmaben  appears. 

Ecclesiastical  business  is  at  present  transacted  in  the 
Kirk  Sessions  of  43  civil  parishes  and  five  quoad  sacra 
parishes,  within  the  five  presbyteries  of  Lochmaben, 
Langholm,  Annan,  Dumfries,  and  Penpont.  The  Appeal 
Court  is  the  Synod  of  Dumfries,  which  meets  in  Dumfries. 

24.     The  Roll  of  Honour. 

The  distinguished  men  of  Dumfriesshire  have  been 
numerous,  and  the  bede-roll  of  fame  is  large.  The 
Kindly  Tenants  of  The  Four  Towns  of  Lochmaben  have 
pride  in  their  tradition  that  King  Robert  the  Bruce  was 
born  in  their  castled  town,  which  he  elevated  into  a  royal 
burgh.  Of  the  innumerable  leaders  of  patriots  who  fought 
and  fell  for  national  liberty  between  the  Lowthers  and 
the  walls  of  York  mention  need  only  be  made  of  the 
Maxwells,  Douglases,  Kirkpatricks,  Crichtons,  Johnstones, 
Jardines,  Carlyles,  Graemes,  Irvings,  Elliots,  and  Arm- 
strongs, and  many  a  gallant  deed  will  be  recalled.  The 
Western  March  had  in  the  Maxwells  the  doughtiest  of 
Wardens  ;  of  these  none  is  better  deserving  of  remem- 
brance than  the  fourth  baron,  Lord  Maxwell,  who  in 
1543  secured  from  parliament  the  right  for  the  lieges 
to  peruse  the  Bible  in  their  vernacular  tongue.  Many  of 


the  Douglases  of  Drumlanrig  attained  to  great  eminence 
as  soldiers  and  statesmen,  and  among  these  James,  second 
Duke  of  Queensberry  (1662-1711),  played  a  most  im- 
portant part  in  that  critical  period  which  ended  in  the 
union  of  the  parliaments.  Bonshaw  Tower  is  owned  by 
an  Irving,  chief  of  a  redoubtable  Border  clan,  from  whom 
sprang  many  famous  men,  including  Edward  Irving  and 
Washington  Irving.  Hector  Boethius,  Scottish  historian 
and  first  Principal  of  King's  College,  Aberdeen,  was  of 
Annandale  descent,  being  related  to  the  family  of  Boys — 
"Baro  de  Dryfesdale."  "Rare  Ben  Jonson"  was  of  the 
stock  of  Annandale  Johnstones.  Robert  Jonston,  author 
of  the  Historia  rerum  Britannic  arum,  published  in  Amster- 
dam in  1655,  hailed  from  Annandale. 

Ballad  literature  has  invested  with  a  kind  of  glamour 
Johnie  Armstrong  (1529)  "sum  tyme  callit  Laird  of 
Gilnockie,"  and  his  fearless  freebooting  tribe.  Of  nobler 
stamp  were  "the  four  knights  of  Eskdale,"  born  at  Burn- 
foot  in  Westerkirk.  They  were  Sir  Pulteney  Malcolm 
(1768-1838),  admiral,  who  fought  under  Nelson,  and  at 
St  Helena  guarded  Napoleon,  who  said  of  him,  "Ah  ! 
there  is  a  man  !";  Sir  John  Malcolm,  G.C.B.,  M.P.  (1769- 
1833),  the  Indian  administrator  and  diplomatist,  who  no  less 
distinguished  in  the  East  by  his  sword  than  known  in  the 
West  by  his  pen,  gave  us  The  Political  History  of  India, 
The  History  of  Persia,  and  The  Life  of  Robert,  Lord  dive; 
Sir  Charles  Malcolm  (1782-1851)  who  saw  much  service 
in  the  East  and  West  Indies;  and  Sir  George  Malcolm 
(1818-1897),  who  fought  in  Scinde,  the  Sikh  War,  Indian 
Mutiny,  and  Abyssinia.  Born  also  in  Eskdale  were 



Admiral  Thomas  Pasley  (1734-1804)  who  assisted  Howe 
to  defeat  the  French  fleet  in  1794,  and  Sir  Charles  Pasley, 

Sir  John  Malcolm,  G.C.B. 

R.E.     Archibald  Johnston,  Lord  Wariston  (1611-1663), 
one  of  the  Covenanters  who  opposed  Charles  I  and  helped 


Alexander  Henderson  to  frame  the  National  Covenant, 
was  born  in  Edinburgh,  but  his  father  was  James  Johnston 
of  Beerholm,  Kirkpatrick  Juxta.  To  another  Lord- 
Advocate  and  Lord  of  Session,  George  Young,  a  native 
of  Dumfries,  Scotland  is  indebted  for  the  Education  Act 
of  1872. 

One  of  the  remarkable  results  of  the  cessation  from 
the  tumult  of  Border  war  was  the  devotion  with  which 
the  once  bellicose  inhabitants  turned  to  peaceful  avocations 
and  to  letters.  They  "beat  their  swords  into  ploughshares, 
and  their  spears  into  pruning  hooks,"  so  effectually  that  it 
is  not  easy  to  obtain  a  genuine  blade  which  has  drawn 
blood.  Innumerable  scholars  have  emerged  from  the 
country  schools  of  the  county.  According  to  some  John 
Duns  Scotus  took  his  oath  and  habit  of  St  Francis  in 
Dumfries;  and  John  de  Sacro  Bosco,  a  scientific  writer, 
hailed  from  Holywood.  High  on  the  long  roll  of  literary 
men  is  "The  Admirable"  Crichton,  James,  the  son  of 
Robert  Crichton  of  Eliock  and  Cluny,  Lord-Advocate 
of  Scotland  and  Lord  of  Session.  He  was  born  in  1560 
in  Eliock  House,  Sanquhar.  The  attainments  of  this 
prodigy — the  most  learned  graduate  of  St  Andrews 
University,  master  of  many  languages,  equally  proficient 
in  every  branch  of  learning,  arms,  and  culture — are  almost 
incredible  for  a  youth  who  was  unhappily  slain  at  Mantua 
in  his  twenty-second  year.  But  they  have  been  equalled 
by  the  marvellous  attainments  of  another  Dumfriesian, 
Dr  William  Hastie  (1841—1903),  born  in  Wanlockhead, 
Professor  of  Divinity  in  the  University  of  Glasgow. 
Gifted  with  an  extraordinary  memory,  he  not  only 



equalled  Crichton  as  a  linguist,  but  knew  several  oriental 
tongues,     discussed     with     exactitude    history,    theology, 

Robert  Flint 

philosophy,  jurisprudence,  and  science,  and  showed  merit 
as  a  poet.     Of  almost  equal  magnitude  of  powers,  but  in 


all  respects  a  greater  thinker  and  author,  was  Dr  Robert 
Flint  (1838-1910),  of  Annandale  extraction,  a  native  of 
Dumfries,  minister  in  Aberdeen  and  Kilconquhar,  Pro- 
fessor of  Moral  Philosophy  and  Political  Economy  in 
St  Andrews,  and  Professor  of  Divinity  in  Edinburgh. 
His  mind  was  encyclopaedic.  His  Philosophy  of  History , 
Theism,  Anti-theistic  Theories,  Agnosticism,  and  Socialism 
are  likely  to  remain  standard  works. 

Of  other  ministers  of  religion,  whose  names  are  worthy 
of  honour,  John  Welch  or  Welsh  (1570-1622),  a  reputed 
native  of  Collieston,  Dunscore,  son-in-law  of  John  Knox, 
suffered  exile  in  France  rather  than  submit  to  the  inter- 
ference of  James  VI  in  Scottish  Church  affairs.  A  worthy 
successor  of  this  defender  of  the  faith  was  James  Renwick 
(1662-1688),  a  native  of  Moniaive,  educated  in  Edin- 
burgh and  Groningen,  who  was  the  last  of  the  Hillmen 
judicially  executed  for  "Christ's  Crown  and  Covenants" 
in  1688.  For  being  concerned  in  the  Rescue  at  Enterkin 
the  following  Covenanters  from  Dumfriesshire  were 
executed  in  1684 — Thomas  Harkness,  Andrew  Clark, 
Samuel  McEwen,  and  Thomas  Wood.  Other  local 
martyrs,  buried  in  the  shire,  were — William  Smith  in 
Tynron,  John  Gibson,  Robert  Edgar,  and  James  Bennoch 
in  Glencairn,  William  Grierson  and  James  Kirko  in 
Dumfries,  Daniel  Macmichael  in  Durisdeer,  and  Andrew 
Hislop  in  Eskdalemuir.  The  gravestones  of  the  Cove- 
nanters were  long  kept  in  repair  by  "Old  Mortality," 
Robert  Paterson  (1716-1800)  who,  after  learning  his 
trade,  stone-cutting,  in  Corncockle  Quarry,  leased  Gate- 
lawbridge  Quarry.  He  died  at  Bankend,  Caerlaverock. 


The  most  gifted  preacher  born  in  the  shire  was 
Edward  Irving  (1792-1834),  a  native  of  Annan,  and 
educated  there  and  in  Edinburgh.  He  became  assistant 
to  Dr  Chalmers.  He  befriended  Carlyle.  Genius,  oratory, 
and  a  majestic  figure  made  him  the  most  arresting  person- 
ality of  his  age.  His  herculean  labours  disturbed  his 
mental  equilibrium  and  led  to  the  expression  of  doctrines 
incompatible  with  his  position  in  the  National  Church, 
from  whose  ministry  he  was  deposed  by  his  co-presbyters 
in  Annan  in  1833.  Dr  Andrew  Mitchell  Thomson 
(1779-1831),  born  in  Sanquhar  Manse,  became  minister 
of  St  George's,  Edinburgh,  where  he  shone  as  a  preacher, 
as  in  the  assembly  he  excelled  as  a  debater  and  evangelical 
leader.  Another  doctor  of  the  same  name  became  minister 
of  Broughton  United  Presbyterian  Church,  Edinburgh, 
and  died  there  in  1901.  Two  other  contemporary 
men  of  mark  were  Dr  Robert  Gordon  (1786-1853), 
a  native  of  Glencairn,  minister  of  the  High  Church, 
Edinburgh,  and  a  writer  of  merit ;  and  David  Welsh 
(1793-1845),  born  at  Ericstane,  Professor  of  Church 
History  in  Edinburgh,  one  of  the  founders  of  The  North 
British  Review  and  its  first  editor.  Robert  Johnston 
(1807-1853),  born  in  MofFat,  found  a  mission  field  in 
Madras.  Dr  John  G.  Paton,  a  native  of  Torthorwald, 
spent  a  life  of  unwearied  devotion  amid  perils  as  a 
missionary  in  the  New  Hebrides  till  his  death  in  1907. 
Of  physicians  not  a  few  eminent  men  were  born  in 
the  county.  Dr  John  Hutton  became  first  physician  to 
King  William  and  Queen  Anne,  and  left  handsome 
bequests  to  his  native  parish  of  Caerlaverock.  Dr  James 

Edward  Irving 


Mounsey  and  Dr  John  Rogerson  became  court  doctors  in 
St  Petersburg;  Sir  Andrew  Halliday  served  through  the 
Peninsular  War;  and  Sir  William  Rae,  his  contemporary, 
became  Inspector-General  of  Hospitals  and  Fleets.  Dr 
James  Crichton,  a  native  of  Sanquhar,  amassed  a  large 
fortune  in  India,  where  he  was  physician  to  the  Governor- 
General;  and  after  his  decease  his  widow,  Elizabeth 
Grierson,  a  daughter  of  the  Laird  of  Lag,  left  the  money 
to  found  The  Crichton  Royal  Institution  for  Insane,  in 
Dumfries.  Dr  James  Currie,  born  in  the  Manse  of 
Kirkpatrick-Fleming,  gave  the  world  the  Life  of  Robert 
Burns  in  1800.  Dr  William  Beattie,  a  native  of  Dalton, 
wrote  the  life  of  Thomas  Campbell,  the  poet.  Dr  John 
Carlyle,  brother  of  Thomas,  translated  Dante.  Sir  William 
Jardine,  the  seventh  baronet  of  Applegarth,  distinguished 
himself  as  a  naturalist  and  as  joint-editor  of  the  Edinburgh 
Philosophical  "Journal. 

Westerkirk  was  the  birthplace  of  that  remarkable 
engineer,  Thomas  Telford  (1757-1834),  a  genius  largely 
self-taught,  whose  gifts  lay  in  overcoming  engineering 
difficulties  and  triumphing  over  nature,  as  he  did  in  the 
Menai  Suspension  Bridge,  St  Catherine's  Docks,  High- 
land Roads,  Caledonian  Canal,  Glasgow  Bridge,  and 
other  monuments  to  his  merit  greater  than  the  memorial 
in  Westminster  Abbey.  Meanwhile  his  contemporary, 
Patrick  Miller,  Laird  of  Dalswinton,  assisted  by  Symington 
and  Hutchison  from  Wanlockhead,  was  experimenting  in 
Dalswinton  Loch  with  a  steam-boat ;  and  Robert  Burns 
crossed  the  Nith  from  Ellisland  to  be  a  passenger  in  it 
on  I4th  October,  1788,  along  with  Henry  Brougham, 


afterwards  Lord  Chancellor.  George  Graham  (1822-1 899), 
chief  engineer  of  the  Caledonian  Railway,  is  worthy  of 
remembrance  for  his  enduring  work  in  connection  with 
that  system.  He  wrote  the  Tourist's  Guide  to  the  system. 
He  drove  the  first  passenger  engine  from  Beattock  to 
Carlisle  on  loth  September,  1847.  Kirkpatrick  Mac- 
Millan  (1813-1878),  a  native  of  Barflitt,  Keir,  invented 
a  "dandy  horse"  and  the  first  gear-driven  bicycle.  His 
smithy  is  at  Courthill,  and  his  burial  place  in  the  old 
churchyard  of  Keir.  William  Paterson  (1658-1719),  a 
native  of  Skipmyre,  Tinwald,  was  the  founder  of  the 
Bank  of  England,  and  promoter  of  the  Darien  Expedition. 
Dr  Henry  Duncan,  parish  minister  of  Ruthwell,  in  1810 
founded  the  Savings  Bank.  He  is  also  entitled  to  remem- 
brance as  the  protector  of  the  Ruthwell  Cross  and  the 
discoverer  of  reptilian  footprints  in  Corncockle  sandstone. 
His  statue  adorns  the  Savings  Bank  in  Dumfries. 

Many  travellers  have  gone  to  arctic  and  tropical 
regions.  Sir  John  Richardson,  M.D.  (1787-1865),  a 
native  of  Dumfries,  as  surgeon  and  naturalist,  accompanied 
Franklin  to  the  polar  regions,  and  also  went  in  search  of 
his  lost  leader.  Hugh  Clapperton  (1788-1827),  a  native 
of  Annan,  was  sent  to  Nigeria  by  the  British  Government, 
but  succumbed  in  the  tropics.  More  daring  and  more 
successful  were  the  explorations  of  Joseph  Thomson 
(1858-1895),  a  native  of  Penpont,  who  learned  stone- 
hewing  in  Gatelawbridge  Quarry,  and  science  in 
Edinburgh  University.  At  19  years  of  age  he  went  as 
geologist  and  naturalist  with  the  Geographical  Society's 
Expedition  to  Central  Africa.  The  death  of  his  leader 

H.  D.  10 



left  the  youth  in  charge  of  the  expedition,  which  he  took 
and  brought  back  without  mishap.     He  explored  Masai 

Joseph  Thomson 

Land,  Congo  Land,  West  Africa,  and  Morocco,  and 
wrote  delightful  narratives  of  his  travels.  The  hardships 
of  travel  cut  him  off  in  early  manhood.  His  monument 


is  erected  in  front  of  Morton  School  (see  p.  170),  where  he 
received  most  of  his  education.  Dr  James  Dinwiddie 
(1746-1815),  a  native  of  Tinwald,  travelled  through 
China.  James  Anderson  (1824-1893),  a  native  of 
Dumfries,  Captain  of  the  "Great  Eastern,"  was  knighted 
for  his  scientific  services  in  laying  the  Atlantic  Cable  in 

Of  the  men  of  letters  belonging  to  the  county 
Thomas  Carlyle,  that  literary  giant,  naturally  comes 
first.  The  son  of  a  stone-mason,  he  was  born  in  1795 
at  Ecclefechan,  and  was  in  1881  laid  to  rest  a  few 
yards  from  the  Arch  House,  where  he  first  saw  light. 
In  him  were  concentrated  all  the  highest  qualities  of  that 
unconquerable  Border  tribe  which  gave  him  his  name,  and 
he  has  requited  the  gift  with  his  universal  fame.  Another 
contemporary  native  of  Annandale,  an  advocate,  theo- 
logian, and  author  of  some  merit,  bore  the  same  name. 
Dr  Alexander  Carlyle  (1722-1805),  "Jupiter  Carlyle," 
was  born  in  the  Manse  of  Cummertrees.  In  Hoddom 
parish  was  the  residence  of  Charles  Sharpe,  a  writer  of 
verses,  and  his  better  known  son,  Charles  Kirkpatrick 
Sharpe  (1781-1851),  a  quaint  antiquary,  a  redactor  of 
Border  minstrelsy,  and  a  friend  of  Sir  Walter  Scott. 

Peter  Rae  (1671—1 748),  a  native  of  Dumfries,  minister 
of  Kirkbride  and  Kirkconnel,  the  maker  of  an  ingenious 
astronomical  clock,  preserved  in  Drumlanrig  Castle,  is 
best  known  as  the  author  of  a  History  of  the  Rebellion  in 
the  year  1715. 

Among  other  learned  men  who  adorned  the  teaching 
profession  may  be  mentioned  Thomas  Gillespie,  Closeburn, 

10 — 2 



Principal  John   Hunter,  Closeburn,   Dr   A.  R.   Carson, 
Holywood,   Dr  Alexander    Reid,    Morton,    Dr    George 

Thomas  Carlyle 

Ferguson,   Tynron,  and  his  brother  Alexander.     David 
Irving  (1778—1860),  librarian  of  the  Faculty  of  Advocates 


and  author  of  the  Lives  of  the  Scottish  Poets,  and  History  of 
Scottish  Poetry,  was  born  in  Langholm.  James  Hannay, 
Dr  Robert  Carruthers,  Thomas  Aird,  John  MacDiarmid, 
and  William  McDowall  all  maintained  the  high  traditions 
of  literary  journalism  in  Dumfries.  Joseph  Train,  author 
and  antiquary,  gathered  up  the  traditions  of  the  south  for 
transmission  to  Sir  Walter  Scott,  who  gave  them  immortal 
settings  in  such  novels  as  Guy  Mannering,  Old  Mortality, 
The  Bride  of  Lammermoor,  and  The  Abbot.  One  of  Train's 
works  was  The  Buchanites,  a  biography  of  Mrs  Elspeth 
Buchan  and  her  fanatical  following,  who  settled  at  New 
Cample,  Closeburn,  as  a  prelude  to  her  intended  apotheosis 
at  Templeland. 

This  incident  suggests  the  observation  that  few  Border 
women  have  been  placed  upon  the  roll  of  fame.  Minstrels 
only  remind  us  that  the  traveller 

"  May  in  Kirkconnel  churchyard  view 
The  grave  of  lovely  Helen," 

and   that  on   Maxwelton   Braes,  in    Glencairn,  "bonnie 
Annie  Laurie"  (1682-1764)  gave  "her  promise  true." 

Too  numerous  for  mention  even  are  all  the  native 
poets  who  have  sung  the  praises  of  the  hills  and  dales  of 
the  south,  down  to  Alexander  Anderson  (1848—1909), 
"Surfaceman,"  a  native  of  Kirkconnel.  The  same  parish 
is  the  birthplace  of  James  Hyslop  (1798-1827),  teacher, 
and  author  of  the  beautiful  poem,  The  Cameraman's 
Dream.  The  Muse  in  Kirkconnel  also  touched  William 
Laing,  as  in  Durisdeer  it  found  Francis  Bennoch,  and  in 
Moniaive  William  Bennet.  Thomas  Blacklock  (1721- 


1791),  the  blind  poet-preacher,  friend  of  Hume,  Beattie, 
and  Burns,  was  born  in  Annan,  educated  at  Edinburgh 
University,  and  became  for  a  time  minister  of  Kirkcud- 
bright. William  Julius  Mickle  (1735-1788),  son  of  the 
minister  of  Langholm,  corrector  of  the  Clarendon  Press, 
Oxford,  is  best  known  as  the  chaste  translator  of  the  Lusiad, 
author  of  Cumnor  Hall,  and  reputed  author  of  "  There's 
nae  luck  aboot  the  hoose."  John  Mayne  (1759-1836), 
born  in  Dumfries,  learned  printing,  and  became  a  versifier. 
In  his  youth  he  wrote  an  interesting  poem,  with  local 
colour,  entitled,  The  Siller  Gun.  He  settled  in  London, 
and  became  joint-editor  and  proprietor  of  The  Star  news- 
paper. A  man  of  genius  in  London,  contemporary  with 
Mayne,  was  Allan  Cunningham  (1784-1842),  a  native  of 
Blackwood  Estate,  Keir,  who  laid  aside  his  stone-mason's 
tools  for  the  pen  of  a  literary  man  in  the  Capital.  He 
enjoyed  the  friendship  of  Scott,  Hogg,  and  Carlyle,  and 
the  patronage  of  Chantrey,  the  sculptor.  Of  his  volumi- 
nous writings  the  best  known  are,  Remains  ofNithsdale  and 
Galloway  Song,  Lives  of  the  most  eminent  British  Painters, 
his  edition  of  Burns,  and  The  Songs  of  Scotland.  His  own 
fine  lyric,  "  A  wet  sheet  and  a  flowing  sea,"  indicates 
the  musical  genius  of  this  able  writer.  Nor  must  another 
contemporary  lyrist  be  forgotten,  the  Rev.  Henry  Scott 
Riddell  (1798-1870),  son  of  a  shepherd  in  Sorbie,  Lang- 
holm,  who  wrote  the  charming  song  Scotland  yet. 

The  Corrie,  the  Kirtle,  and  the  Milk  had  each  a 
bard — Johnstone,  Graham,  and  Thorn — whose  har- 
monious verse  gives  evidence  of  taste  and  poetic  in- 

Burns's  Monument,  Dumfries 


It  is  worthy  of  notice  that  many  descendants  of 
Borderers  who  gallantly  bore  the  sword  in  defence  of 
their  fatherland — Douglases,  Johnstones,  Carlyles,  Irvings 
and  Bells — have  successfully  wielded  the  author's  pen  in 
praise  of  the  charms  of  the  shire.  A  noticeable  feature 
of  their  minstrelsy  is  the  glamour  with  which  the  streams 
have  held  these  singers,  as  well  as  such  poetic  visitants  as 
Fergusson,  Wordsworth,  Hogg,  and  Walter  C.  Smith. 
Every  dale  has  had  its  devotee — Crawick  its  Laing, 
Wanlock  its  Reid,  Esk  its  Park,  Dryfe  its  Gardiner — 
happy  in  declaring  with  Bell,  the  minstrel  of  "  Annan 
Water,  sweet  and  fair," 

"  Steeped  in  boyhood's  golden  dream, 

Magic  lights  and  shadows, 
Sing  for  aye,  enchanted  stream, 
Through  enchanted  meadows." 

Miller's  Poets  of  Dumfriesshire   is   an  anthology  for  the 

But  all  these  men  of  letters  pale  their  ineffectual  fires 
before  that  of  the  King  of  Scottish  Song,  who  has  made 
Dumfries  the  Mecca  of  all  true  poets,  since  the  time 
when  Wordsworth,  with  his  pen  dipped  in  tears,  told  the 
educated  world  that  Ellisland,  in  Dunscore,  enshrines  the 
memory  of  the  farmer,  and  St  Michael's  churchyard, 
Dumfries,  guards  the  ashes  of  the  poet — Burns. 


(The  figures  in  brackets  after  each  name  give  the  population  in 
1911,  and  those  at  the  end  of  each  section  are  references  to 
the  pages  in  the  text.) 

Annan  (4219)  is  a  royal  burgh,  within  a  parish  (6261)  of 
the  same  name,  on  the  river  Annan.  Its  original  charter,  de- 
stroyed by  fire,  was  confirmed  and  renewed  in  1538  and  1612. 
Its  mote,  castle,  and  fortified  steeple  played  a  great  part  in  Border 
war.  Carlyle  was  educated  at  the  grammar  school  before  going  to 
the  University  of  Edinburgh  (see  p.  147).  There  are  flourishing 
industries  in  the  town  and  vicinity — agriculture,  fisheries,  grain- 
milling,  saw-milling,  wood-working,  engineering,  tile  and  brick- 
making,  distilling,  boat-building,  sandstone-quarrying,  and  cattle 
sales.  There  is  also  a  small  shipping  trade.  The  mansion  houses 
of  Mount  Annan,  Warmanbie,  and  Northfield  are  in  the  parish, 
(pp.  4,  6,  12,  15,  18,  20,  46,  47,  50,  73,  76,  77,  81,  82,  83,  84, 
85,  9X>  92,  93,  in,  120,  121,  125,  126,  128,  130,  131,  132,  133, 
135,  140,  141,  145,  150.) 

Applegarth  and  Sibbaldbie  (821),  is  a  parish  in  Mid- 
Annandale.  Jardine  Hall  and  Dinwoodie  Lodge  are  in  the  parish, 
(p.  20.) 

Bankend  is  a  hamlet  with  quaint,  thatched  houses,  in  the 
parish  of  Caerlaverock.  (pp.  94,  140.) 



Brydekirk  (951)  is  a  quoad  sacra  parish  with  a  village  of 
the  same  name  three  miles  from  Annan.  The  old  chapel  is 
situated  near  the  Annan  above  the  village.  In  the  red  sandstone 
quarry  of  Corsehill  130  men  are  employed  producing  over  15,000 
tons  of  stone  annually,  (pp.  20,  92.) 

Canonbie  (1838)  is  a  parish  in  Eskdale.  Coal  is  worked 
near  Rowanburn — the  Old  Colliery  and  Blinkbonny — and 
18,000  tons  are  banked  by  105  men  and  boys.  The  limestone 

Jardine  Hall 

quarry  in  the  parish  produces  2000  tons  of  lime.  The  Glenzier 
sandstone  quarry  is  now  little  worked.  There  are  five  villages — 
Rowanburn,  Bowholm,  Claygate,  Hollows,  and  Evertown — and 
several  old  towers  exist  in  the  district,  (pp.  10,  21,  32,  41,  60, 
69*  79>  I07>  I28.) 

Carronbridge  (200)  is  a  village  in  Morton  parish,  whose 
neat  homes  are  mostly  occupied  by  workers  on  the  Queensberry 
Estate,  (pp.  15,  1 6,  128.) 


Carrutherstown,  a  village  in  Dalton  parish  (589),  has  a 
public  library  and  hall.  The  following  mansion  houses  are  in 
the  neighbourhood,  Dormont,  Rammerscales,  Whitecroft,  Denbie, 
Kirkwood,  Hetland. 

Closeburn  (1244)  is  a  parish,  with  a  village  (200)  of  the 
same  name.  Hogg,  the  Ettrick  shepherd,  tended  sheep  at 
Mitchellslacks,  formerly  the  home  of  the  Harknesses,  Covenanters. 
Wallace  Hall  Academy,  a  higher  grade  school,  was  founded  by 
John  Wallace  in  1723.  "The  Kilns"  have  produced  lime  for 
nearly  a  century  and  a  half.  The  village  is  known  as  "The 
Crossroads."  (pp.  15,  24,  33,  35,  40,  67,  70,  72,  76,  80,  96,  99, 
100,  106,  no,  112,  124,  147.) 

Cummertrees  (1027)  is  a  parish,  with  a  village  of  the 
same  name.  Here  are  situated  the  lime  quarry  of  Kelhead, 
Kinmount  House,  and  Repentance  Tower.  The  fisheries  give 
employment  to  some  of  the  inhabitants.  Powfoot  (q.v .)  is  also 
in  the  parish,  (pp.  47,  50,  80,  83,  147.) 

Dornock  (820)  is  a  maritime  parish  in  Annandale,  with  a 
village  of  the  same  name.  Blacket,  Robgill,  and  Stapleton  are 
mansion  houses  in  the  parish,  (pp.  47,  51,  83,  91.) 

Dumfries  (16,061),  on  the  east  side  of  the  river  Nith,  as  a 
royal  burgh  dates  from  1186.  Courts,  justiciary,  sheriff,  burghal, 
and  justice  of  peace,  are  held  in  Dumfries.  The  inhabitants  are 
engaged  in  agriculture,  floriculture,  arboriculture,  weaving  of 
tweeds,  hosiery  and  gloves,  tanning,  coach-building,  jam-making, 
printing,  and  other  industries  and  trades  connected  with  these. 
Markets  are  held  on  the  High  Street,  in  auction-marts,  and  on 
the  White  Sands.  Its  public  buildings,  county  buildings,  town 
hall,  academy,  Ewart  public  library,  hospitals,  Crichton  institution, 
churches,  are  handsome  edifices.  The  streets  are  well  paved,  and 
in  the  suburbs,  roads,  wide  and  well  laid  out,  lead  to  beautiful 
villas.  The  mid-steeple  is  a  historic  landmark  on  High  Street, 



and  the  statue  of  Burns  is  an  arresting  object  on  the  same  street. 
In  St  Michael's  churchyard,  a  befitting  shrine  holds  the  ashes  of 
the  great  poet  who  often  walked  "The  Plainstanes"  of  Dumfries. 
Beside  his  mausoleum,  amid  a  thicket  of  monuments,  lie  three 
grave-slabs  commemorating  Welsh,  Grierson,  and  Kirko,  martyred 
Covenanters.  In  the  Council  Chamber  is  exhibited  the  Siller 
Gun,  a  shooting  trophy  presented  to  the  Incorporated  Trades  of 


Dunscore  Church 

Dumfries  by  James  VI  in  1617.  The  local  museum  at  the 
observatory,  across  the  river  in  Maxwelltown,  contains  many 
curious  local  relics.  There  are  clubs  for  golf,  bowling,  hockey, 
cricket,  carpet-bowling,  lawn-tennis,  rowing,  football,  and  curling. 
Vessels  of  300  tons  discharge  at  Kingholm  Quay.  Castlebank 
overlooking  Kingholm  is  the  site  of  Dumfries  Castle,  (pp.  2,  3, 
4,  8,  10,  12,  16,  18,  35,  36,  47,  54,  55,  58,  60,  61,  65,  66,  67, 


73,  74,  76,  77,  83,  84,  85,  89,  90,  91,  93,  94,  95,  106,  107,  109, 
no,  119,  120,  125,  126,  129,  130,  131,  133,  135,  138,  140,  145, 
147,  149,  150,  151,  152.) 

Dunscore  (1027)  is  a  parish,  with  a  village  of  the  same 
name,  in  the  western  valley  watered  by  the  Cairn  and  Cluden, 
whose  inhabitants  are  wholly  engaged  in  agriculture.  At  Craigen- 
puttock,  on  its  uplands,  Carlyle  lived  and  wrote;  at  Ellisland 
Burns  was  a  farmer;  and  at  Lag  Castle  Sir  Robert  Grierson,  the 
persecutor,  dwelt.  The  Welshes  of  Dunscore  and  Craigenputtock 
are  buried  in  the  parish  churchyard,  Grierson  of  Lag  in  the  old 
churchyard.  Friars  Carse,  in  the  parish,  was  an  early  possession 
of  the  Monks  of  Melrose.  It  was  the  home  of  the  Riddells  of 
Glenriddell  in  the  time  of  Burns,  who  there  witnessed  the  famous 
contest  for  the  whistle,  (pp.  11,  16,  24,  42,  63,  123,  128,  140.) 

Durisdeer  (849)  is  a  large  inland  parish  in  Nithsdale, 
occupied  mostly  by  agriculturists  and  sheep-masters.  A  small 
kirk-town  stands  beside  the  parish  church.  In  the  churchyard 
Daniel  Macmichael,  the  Covenanter,  shot  at  Dalveen,  is  buried. 
Drumlanrig  Castle  is  in  the  parish.  The  sites  of  Durisdeer  and 
Enoch  Castles  remain  prominent.  Dalveen  Pass,  Enterkin  Pass, 
and  Kirkbride  Church  are  favourite  spots  for  visitors,  (pp.  16, 
97,  100,  106,  107,  109,  124,  140,  149.) 

Eaglesfield  (500)  is  a  flourishing  village  in  Middlebie 
parish,  where  many  hands  are  employed  in  tailoring.  Eagles- 
field  has  a  good  library.  Here  William  Lockhart  the  painter 
(1846-1900)  was  born.  (p.  77.) 

Ecclefechan  (750)  is  a  village  in  the  parish  of  Hoddom 
(1258),  once  the  seat  of  a  gingham  industry,  and  now  the  Mecca 
of  devotees  of  Thomas  Carlyle.  Ecclefechan  station  (Caledonian 
Railway)  is  convenient  for  travellers  to  the  Roman  Camps  of 
Birrens  and  Birrenswark  in  the  vicinity,  (pp.  20,  33,  128,  147.) 



Enterkinfoot  is  a  hamlet  half-way  between  Thornhill  and 
Sanquhar,  in  Durisdeer  parish.  It  lies  at  the  foot  of  the  wild 
Enterkin  Pass,  the  scene  of  a  famous  rescue  of  Covenanters  from 
the  dragoons  of  Claverhouse  on  igth  July  1684.  The  nearest 
railway  station  is  Carronbridge  (G.  &  S.  W.  Railway),  (pp.  16, 
125,  140.) 

Carlyle's  Birthplace,   Ecclefechan 

Eskdalemuir  (392)  is  the  parish  with  the  largest  acreage 
in  the  shire,  namely  43,518^  acres,  a  district  13  miles  long  and 
nine  miles  broad.  A  well-defined  Roman  camp  at  Raeburnfoot 
(Overbie)  and  many  circular  forts  remain.  In  1908  an  observa- 
tory completely  equipped  with  magnetographs,  seismographs,  and 
other  instruments  for  measuring  atmospheric  phenomena,  was 
erected  here  because  of  the  absolute  serenity  of  the  station. 
(PP-  3)  4,  10,  12,  21,  32,  42,  43,  57,  58,  60,  92,  97,  136.) 


Gatelawbridge  is  a  hamlet  in  Morton,  where  the  quarry- 
men  of  an  extensive  sandstone  quarry  reside,  (pp.  35,  76,  80,  145.) 

Glencaple  is  a  village  in  Caerlaverock  parish,  five  miles 
below  Dumfries,  having  a  jetty  where  vessels  of  over  500  tons  can 
moor  and  discharge,  in  14  feet  of  water.  It  is  a  favourite  resort 
for  visitors,  (p.  86.) 

Gretna  Green 

Gretna  or  Graitney  (1212)  is  a  parish,  with  four  villages 
— Old  Gretna,  Gretna  Green  or  Springfield,  Rigg  of  Gretna,  and 
Brewhouses — and  two  railway  stations.  Being  on  the  English 
boundary,  it  was  famous  for  runaway  marriages  celebrated  at 
Gretna  Green.  Gretna  Green  marriages  are  simple  declarations 
of  marriage  made  before  witnesses,  and  sometimes  recorded  by 
the  chief  witness  calling  himself  the  celebrant.  A  marriage  of 



this  kind  is  still  legal  according  to  the  law  of  Scotland,  being 
styled  an  irregular  marriage.  Registration  granted  by  order  of 
the  Court  of  Session  or  of  the  sheriff  puts  it  into  formal  legal 
order  for  civil  purposes;  and  the  Marriage  Notice  (Scotland)  Act 
only  requires  that  one  of  the  parties  has  his  or  her  usual  residence 
in  Scotland,  or  has  resided  there  for  2  1  days  before  the  marriage. 
In  "The  Queen's  Head"  Inn  at  Springfield  Lord  Erskine  was 

Hoddom  Church 

married  by  David  Lang  in  this  old  irregular  way.  The  old 
"  Gretna  Hall"  hostelry,  now  a  private  residence,  "The  Maxwell 
Arms,"  and  the  Tollhouse  were  scenes  of  marriage.  These 
irregular  marriages  could  be  contracted  in  any  house,  the  self- 
constituted  "priest"  being  locally  styled  the  blacksmith,  because 
he  welded  the  contracting  parties.  Battles  were  fought  in  Gretna 
parish.  Here  stands  the  famous  treaty  stone  and  landmark, 


Clochmabenstane,  and  on  the  opposite  shore  at  Burgh-by-Sands 
is  erected  a  memorial  to  Edward  I  on  the  spot  where  he  died, 
(pp.  20,  23,  35,  47,  50,  52,  56,  85,  97,  124,  128.) 

Hoddom  (1258)  is  a  beautiful  parish  in  Lower  Annandale 
where  St  Mungo  planted  his  see  and  Fechan  had  his  church. 
The  old  castle  of  Hoddom  is  incorporated  in  a  splendid  mansion — 
the  residence  of  Mr  E.  J.  Brook,  (pp.  14,  20,  29,  39,  40,  69,  84, 
87,  88,  97,  100,  116,  117,  130,  147.) 

Hollows,  a  small  hamlet  in  Canonbie  parish,  takes  its  name 
from  the  fortalice  of  Johnie  Armstrong,  now  repaired  but  not' 
inhabitable,  which    stands   above  the   Esk,   four  miles  south   of 
Langholm.     The  site  of  Gilnockie  Tower  is  near  by.     (pp.  13, 
116,  119.) 

Holywood  (86.5)  is  a  parish,  with  a  hamlet  (69)  of  the  same 
name,  in  Nithsdale.  Some  identify  it  with  "the  head  of  the  wood 
in  Caledon."  Here  stands  the  great  circle  of  stones  called  "The 
Twelve  Apostles."  The  old  abbey,  Dercongal,  has  disappeared 
together  with  a  hospital  built  by  Archibald  Douglas,  the  Grim. 
Two  ancient  church  bells  hang  in  the  belfry  of  the  parish  church. 
There  is  a  quarry  at  Morrington.  (pp.  45,  87,  97,  106,  138.) 

Johnstone  (751)  is  a  parish  in  the  Howe  of  Annandale, 
wherein  is  situated  Raehills,  the  splendid  residence  of  Mr  Hope- 
Johnstone,  proprietor  of  nearly  all  the  parish.  Lochwood  Tower, 
now  in  ruins,  the  ancient  family  seat  of  the  Johnstones,  is  built 
on  a  ridge  overlooking  a  great  morass  on  the  west.  The  Loch- 
wood  Oaks  are  of  great  antiquity,  (pp.  12,  20.) 

Keir  (538)  is  a  parish,  with  a  hamlet  of  the  same  name, 
beside  the  parish  church,  whose  inhabitants  are  mostly  engaged 
in  agriculture,  except  those  employed  at  Barjarg  lime  quarry. 
Here  Kirkpatrick  MacMillan,  inventor  of  the  bicycle,  was  born, 
lived,  and  was  buried.  Capenoch  House  and  Barjarg  Tower  are 
in  the  parish,  (pp.  16,  33,  100,  145,  150.) 

H.  D.  II 



Kirkconnel  (2144)  is  a  parish,  with  increasing  village,  in 
Upper  Nithsdale,  and  includes  part  of  the  extensive  coalfield, 
which  at  present' employs  850  men  and  boys,  and  produces  about 
300,000  tons  of  coal  annually.  (pp.SS,  15,  30,  31,  32,  46,  76,  79, 
100,  147,  149.) 

Kirkmahoe  (1080)  is  a  well  cultivated  parish  to  the  nortli 
of  Dumfries.  Its  villages  are  Kirkton,  Duncow,  Sunnybrae,  and 

Langholm   Parish  Church 

Dalswinton;  its  mansions,  Duncow,  Dalswinton,  Newlands,  and 

Kirkpatrick- Fleming  (1354)  is  a  parish  in  the  south-east 
district  of  the  county,  with  a  station  on  the  Caledonian  Railway. 
It  lies  within  the  red  sandstone  belt  which  was  extensively  quarried 
at  Craigshaws,  Branteth,  Sarkshields,  and  New  Cove.  The  last 


formerly  employed  300  men  and  is  still  being  worked.  The 
chief  mansions  are  Cove,  Langshaw,  Kirkpatrick,  Mossknowe, 
Springkell,  and  Wyseby.  (pp.  20,  104,  105,  115,  124,  143,  149.) 

Kirkpatrick- Juxta  (998)  is  a  parish  near  Moffat.  The 
villages  are  Beattock  (with  station)  and  Craigielands.  (pp.  20, 

Langholm  (2930)  is  a  burgh  situated  on  the  banks  of  the 
river  Esk.  The  country  around  is  charming.  The  chief  build- 
ings are  the  town  hall,  presented  by  the  Duke  of  Buccleuch,  the 
Hope  hospital,  built  and  endowed  out  of  a  bequest  of  £100,000 
left  by  Mr  Thomas  Hope,  a  New  York  merchant,  Langholm 
library  and  museum,  academy,  and  Freemasons'  hall.  A  statue 
to  Sir  Pulteney  Malcolm  stands  beside  the  library,  and  an  obelisk 
to  commemorate  Sir  John  Malcolm  stands  on  Whita  Hill.  The 
chief  industries  are  tweed  weaving,  which  gives  employment  to 
660  workers,  tanning,  till  lately  whisky  distilling,  and  the 
sale  of  merchandise  to  an  extensive  district.  There  are  six 
woollen  mills,  and  large  sales  of  sheep,  (pp.  12,  13,  21,  22,  29, 
31,  41,  60,  72,  73,  76,  77,  91,  105,  121,  128,  131,  133,  149,  150.) 

Lochmaben  (1056)  is  an  ancient  royal  burgh  in  Annandale 
invested  with  much  historic  interest.  Its  lochs  add  distinction  to 
the  landscape,  and  the  ruined  palace  of  the  Scottish  kings,  in  the 
Castle  Loch,  is  a  vivid  reminder  of  great  national  events.  The 
original  castle  of  the  Brus  stood  on  the  Castle  hill  and  is  ob- 
literated. The  present  castle,  in  parts,  dates  from  before  1300. 
Tradition  assigns  the  birthplace  of  King  Robert  I  to  Lochmaben. 
In  the  vicinity  are  four  villages,  called  The  Four  Towns  of  Loch- 
maben, whose  inhabitants  have  for  many  centuries  been  styled 
"The  King's  Kindly  Tenants,"  being  descendants  of  the  vassals 
of  King  Robert  the  Bruce,  who  held  their  lands  in  copyhold,  and 
being  registered  in  the  Rent-Roll  of  the  King's  representative,  or 
castellan,  at  present,  the  Earl  of  Mansfield.  These  villages  are 

II— 2 


Greenhill,  Heck,  Hightae,  and  Smallholm.     (pp.  4,  5,  6,  20,  24, 
46,  47,  60,  66,  83,  92,  96,  106,  in,  112,  122,  124,  128,  130, 

Lockerbie  (2455)  is  a  small  flourishing  burgh  town,  beauti- 
fully situated,  in  the  parish  of  Dryfesdale  (3188),  in  Mid-  Annan- 
dale.  It  is  almost  surrounded  by  the  rivers  Annan,  Dryfe,  and 
Milk,  and  offers  a  pleasant  resort  for  anglers.  Since  the  intro- 
duction of  the  railway  in  1847,  it  has  been  converted  out  of 
a  quiet  rural  village  into  a  hive  of  industry.  Its  sheep  and  lamb 
sales  are  of  great  importance.  Its  modern  buildings  are  hand- 
some and  well-built;  its  streets  broad  and  clean,  and  its  water 
pure.  It  possesses  a  free  library  and  higher  grade  school,  besides 
golf  links  and  other  attractions  of  modern  pleasure  resorts.  Fox- 
hounds and  otter-hounds  hunt  here.  In  the  vicinity  is  Dryfesands, 
the  scene  of  a  bloody  conflict  between  Maxwells  and  Johnstones 
in  1593.  Castlemilk,  Jardine  Hall,  Elshieshields  Tower  are  in 
the  neighbourhood,  together  with  the  romantic  ruins  of  Spedlins 
Tower.  Lockerbie  takes  its  name  from  the  Locards,  a  family 
who  anciently  held  land  there  —  hence  "Locarde-bi."  The  highest 
hill  in  the  district,  White  Woollen  or  Quhyte  Woollen,  is  pro- 
nounced White  Ween.  The  Lockerbie  "Tryst,"  or  great  lamb- 
fair,  was  formerly  an  annual  event  of  much  importance,  and  was 
held  on  Lockerbie  Hill.  Over  40,000  lambs  were  brought  for 
sale.  A  local  carnival  was  also  held  at  the  same  time.  (pp.  20, 
60,  66,  68,  69,  72,  73,  76,  115,  120,  124,  128,  131,  133,  134-) 

Middlebie  (1722)  is  a  rural  parish  in  Annandale,  with  two 
villages,  Eaglesfield  and  Waterbeck.  Two  old  parishes,  Penersax 
and  Carruthers,  are  now  united  to  Middlebie.  In  it  are  Birrens  — 
a  Roman  camp,  and  Scotsbrig,  where  Carlyle's  father  farmed. 
The  Carlyles  anciently  held  lands  here.  (pp.  20,  66,  86,  97,  98.) 

Moffat  (2079),  a  police  burgh,  charmingly  situated  in  Upper 
Annandale,  500  feet  above  sea-level,  is  approached  by  splendid 


roads,  and  has  a  station  on  the  Caledonian  Railway.  For  centuries 
Moffat  has  been  famous  for  its  mineral  waters.  The  well  affords 
waters,  sulphurous  and  saline  and  having  other  medicinal  pro- 
perties, which  are  much  in  demand  for  curing  gout,  rheumatism, 
skin  diseases  and  stomachic  complaints.  The  Hartfell  Spa  is  also 
a  chalybeate  well  of  similar  character  and  popular  for  dyspeptic 
disorders.  A  large  and  magnificent  Hydropathic,  situated  in 


Renwick's  Monument  and  Maxwelton  Braes 

lovely  grounds  on  a  commanding  situation,  adds  distinction  to 
the  neighbourhood.  The  town  with  its  broad,  clean  streets  is  a 
model  for  a  health  resort.  A  golf  course,  tennis  courts,  cricket 
grounds,  bowling  greens,  pleasure  grounds,  and  charming  walks 
offer  delightful  rendezvous  for  tourists  and  visitors.  The  drives 
around  are  most  attractive. 

Off  the  main  street  of  Moffat  stands  Moffat  House,  a  seat  of 
Mr  J.  J.  Hope-Johnstone,  Lord  of  the  Manor.     It  is  said  to  be  a 


good  specimen  of  Adam's  style  of  domestic  architecture,     (pp.  4, 
12,  13,  18,  25,  29,  60,  72,  107,  109,  no,  124,  128,  133,  140.) 

Moniaive  (500)  is  a  pleasant,  quiet  village  in  the  upper  part 
of  the  Cairn  Valley  in  Glencairn  parish  (1410),  nestling  among 
the  hills.  A  light  railway  from  Dumfries  (G.  &  S.  W.  R.)  has 
made  this  sequestered  spot  an  accessible  health  resort,  where 
hitherto  agriculture  and  pastoral  labour  afforded  a  meagre 
employment  to  the  villagers.  The  owners  of  the  land  in  Glen- 
cairn,  as  a  general  rule,  reside  in  the  fine  mansions  which  adorn 
the  district — Maxwelton,  Crawfordton,  Craigdarroch,  Auchen- 
chain,  Townhead,  and  Caitloch.  James  Renwick,  the  martyred 
Covenanter,  was  born  at  Knees,  Moniaive,  near  the  spot  where 
an  obelisk  to  his  memory  stands.  Several  martyrs,  shot  in  the 
parish,  are  buried  in  Glencairn  churchyard.  There  is  a  golf 
course  at  Moniaive.  (pp.  39,  103,  126,  128,  140.) 

Mouswald  (493)  is  a  small  agricultural  and  pastoral  parish 
lying  south-east  of  Dumfries.  Remains  of  castles,  camps  and 
cairns  testify  to  its  importance  in  ancient  times.  St  Peter  was  its 
patron  saint.  Mouswald-Mains,  or  The  Place,  was  the  seat  of 
the  Carruthers.  Rockhall  is  the  seat  of  the  Griersons  of  Lag. 
(pp.  18,  29,  56,  107,  119.) 

Penpont  (831)  is  a  parish  and  village  two  miles  from 
Thornhill  in  Middle  Nithsdale,  whose  inhabitants  largely  depend 
upon  work  created  through  agriculture,  (pp.  16,  30,  39,  100, 
no,  135,  145.) 

Powfoot  is  a  favourite  coast  resort  on  the  Solway,  in  Cum- 
mertrees  parish,  with  golf  course,  bowling  green,  tennis  courts, 
and  other  accessories  of  a  summer  watering  place.  Angling  is 
also  procurable. 

Ruthwell  (770)  is  a  parish,  and  village  (100).  The  Knights 
of  St  John  of  Jerusalem  and  Malta  had  a  chapel,  cemetery,  and 


lands  here.  One  of  the  finest  standing  crosses  in  Europe  is 
preserved  in  the  parish  church.  The  village  of  Clarencefield 
(100)  is  in  the  parish.  (pp.  29,  31,  35,  47,  50,  56,  57,  58,  60, 
78,  88,  101,  102,  103,  114,  145.) 

St  MungO,  or  Abermelk  (573),  is  a  parish  south  of 
Lockerbie  which  keeps  alive  the  name  of  the  great  missionary, 
and  patron  saint  of  Glasgow,  Munghu  Kentigern  (514-603),  who 

Town  Hall,  Sanquhar 

fixed  his  see  in  Hoddom.  The  beautiful  mansion  of  Castlemilk, 
the  seat  of  Sir  Robert  Buchanan-Jardine,  is  in  the  parish,  (pp.  63, 
87,  I33-) 

Sanquhar  (1508),  a  royal  burgh,  is  situated  in  the  valley  of 

Upper  Nithsdale.     Its  history  goes  back  to  an  early  period;  and 

so  early  as  1296  we  find  "a  new  place,"  or  stronghold,  built  at 

Senewar,"  as  it  is  then  called.     Sanquhar  was  a  burgh  of  barony 


till  1598  when  James  VI  erected  it  into  a  royal  burgh.  The 
present  keep,  sometimes  called  "Crichton  Peel,"  was  built  in  the 
fifteenth  century  by  a  Crichton.  The  market  cross  formerly 
stood  on  the  street  where  an  obelisk  now  commemorates  two 
events  which  occurred  there,  namely  the  publishing  of  the 
Sanquhar  Declarations.  On  22nd  June,  1680,  Richard  Cameron 
published  the  first  declaration,  which  disowned  allegiance  to 
Charles  II.  On  2Qth  May,  1685,  James  Renwick  repudiated 
James  VII  and  his  government.  There  are  small  villages  at 
Crawick  Mill  and  Mennock  Bridge.  Agriculture,  coalworks, 
brickworks,  tileworks,  and  hosiery  manufacturing  give  employ- 
ment to  the  people.  In  summer  Sanquhar  is  popular  as  a  health 
resort,  angling  being  easily  obtained,  and  few  restrictions  existing 
to  prevent  visitors  enjoying  the  hill  scenery.  Sanquhar  has  a 
golf  course,  (pp.  15,  29,  31,  32,  72,  77,  78,  79,  94,  98,  99,  107, 
113,  114,  128,  130,  133,  135,  138,  140,  143.) 

Thornhill  (1169)  's  a  lovely  village  in  the  parish  of  Morton 
(1820),  in  Middle  Nithsdale,  built  on  a  high  ridge,  with  broad 
streets,  some  of  which  form  boulevards  of  lime  trees.  At  the 
intersection  of  the  streets  stands  a  tall  imposing  market  cross, 
under  which  fairs  and  markets  were  formerly  held.  It  was  a 
burgh  of  barony,  and  had  a  tolbooth,  now  a  stable.  Thornhill  is 
the  centre  of  a  historic  district.  Three  miles  and  a  half  north  is 
the  strong  castle  of  Morton.  Drumlanrig  Castle,  Closeburn  Castle, 
Tibbers,  and  Enoch  are  also  in  the  vale.  The  parochial  buildings 
are  of  a  very  handsome  character,  and  were  gifts  of  the  late 
Walter,  Duke  of  Buccleuch.  Morton  Public  School,  one  of  the 
old  parish  schools,  has  produced  many  distinguished  men,  notably 
Joseph  Thomson,  whose  monument  stands  outside  the  building. 
Angling  facilities  in  the  district  are  great.  Regular  series  of  drives 
to  romantic  places  are  attractive,  and  now  Thornhill  is  a  health 
resort.  In  the  vicinity  of  Thornhill  are  the  great  sandstone 
quarries  of  Gatelawbridge,  Newton,  and  Closeburn.  (pp.  12, 



l6»  33,  35,  4i»  43»  73>  ?6,  77?  100,  103,  104,  105,  107,  113,  124, 
125,  147.) 

Tinwald  and  Trailflat  (728)  is  an  agricultural  parish,  five 
miles  north-east  of  Dumfries,  in  which  stands  Amisfield  Tower, 
the  ancient  seat  of  the  Charteris  family,  of  whom  Sir  Thomas  was 
Chancellor  of  Scotland  in  the  thirteenth  century,  (pp.  18,  88,  93, 
145,  147.) 

Morton  School  and  Schoolhouse,  Thornhill 

Torthorwald  (788)  is  a  parish  and  village,  west  of  Dumfries, 
whose  ruined  tower  was  formerly  the  seat  of  Kirkpatricks,  and 
afterwards  of  Carlyles.  (pp.  18,  107,  112.) 

Tundergarth  (399)  is  a  parish  east  of  Lockerbie,  in  which 
is  a  circle  of  stones  known  as  The  Seven  Brethren."  Traces  of 
the  paved  Roman  road  are  seen  here.  (p.  20.) 

Tynron  (309)  is  a  small  but  romantic  hilly  parish,  watered 
by  the  Shinnel,  and  dominated  by  the  commanding  triple-ditched 


fort,  called  Tynron  Dun,  to  be  seen  from  every  point  in  Mid- 
Nithsdale.  The  Roman  road  is  said  to  run  from  the  Dun  to 
Drumloff,  crossing  the  Shinnel  above  Stenhouse.  In  this  parish 
Robert  the  Bruce  hid.  In  the  churchyard  lies  the  body  of 
William  Smith,  a  Covenanter,  shot  on  Moniaive  Moss  in  1685. 
James  Hogg,  the  Ettrick  Shepherd,  tended-  sheep  in  this  parish, 
(pp.  n,  16,  30,  96,  109.) 


(The  highest  houses  in  Scotland) 

Wamphray  (369)  is  a  parish,  stream,  and  station  (Caledonian 
Railway)  in  Annandale.  The  Roman  road  is  traceable  through 
it.  Wamphray  Glen  is  noted  for  its  beauty.  In  the  old  tower 
of  Wamphray  lived  '  The  Galliard,"  a  Johnstone,  of  whose  fight- 
ing retinue  it  was  said  "the  Wamphray  lads  are  kings  of  men." 
A  famous  minister  of  Wamphray  in  the  seventeenth  century,  and 
a  voluminous  writer,  was  John  Brown.  Exiled  to  Holland,  he 
there  harassed  the  government  of  Charles  II  by  his  pungent  pen. 
(pp.  12,  20.) 


Wanlockhead  (624)  is  a  quoad  sacra  parish  and  village  on 
the  confines  of  the  county,  formerly  in  Sanquhar  'parish.  It  is 
famous  for  its  lead-mines,  employing  250  workmen.  A  light 
railway  connects  this  village  among  the  hills  with  Leadhills  and 
Elvanfoot,  in  Lanarkshire.  The  station  stands  1384  feet  above 
sea-level.  In  the  churchyard  is  interred  Professor  William 
Hastie,  a  remarkable  scholar,  (pp.  8,  29,  30,  76,  79,  129,  138.) 

(393)  is  a  pastoral  parish  to  the  north-west  of 
Langholm.  An  antimony  mine  at  Glendinning  was  worked  up 
to  about  twenty  years  ago.  Westerhall,  a  well-wooded  estate, 
an  old  seat  of  the  Johnstones,  with  salmon  fishings  worth  £300  a 
year,  was  sold  in  portions  in  1911.  (pp.  21,  80,  143.) 




30,408  square  miles 

1,079  sq.  miles 

Fig.  i.     Area  of  Dumfriesshire  compared  with 
that  of  Scotland 


Population  4,759,445 


Fig.  2.     The  population  of  Dumfriesshire  compared 
with  that  of  Scotland  in  1911 



Lanarkshire   1633  Dumfries  67 

Sutherland   10 

Scotland    157 

Fig.  3.     Comparative  density  of  Population  to  the 
square  mile  (1911) 

(Each  dot  represents  ten  persons) 

Other  Crops  92,396  acres 


Permanent  Grass 
118,733  acres 

Fig.  4.     Proportionate  area  under  Corn  Crops  in 
Dumfriesshire  in  1910 



Mountain  &  Heathland 
used  for  Grazing     . 
382,112  acres 

Fig.  5.     Comparative  areas  of  land  in  Dumfriesshire 
in  igio 

Fig.  6.     Proportionate  areas  of  land  producing  Corn, 
Turnips,  etc.,  and  Potatoes  in  1910 



Fig.  7.    Proportionate  numbers  of  Sheep,  Cattle,  Horses 
and  Pigs  in  Dumfriesshire  in  1910 


Hewison,  James  King 







Reference    to   Parishes 

CanCbruLge  University  Z'; 

^       Permian 
^•A  Coal  Measures 


Upr.Old  Red  Sandstone 
&\  Lnwr.  ,,' 

,/TJ(*        I  c    I  Mat amorph  ic  Rocks 

Cojyriiilit. .  Hefiye  tfiitip  &  A